PLV Inscriptions (Drumburgh to Bowness-on-Solway)

Introduction

One building stone and one altar are the meagre pickings from this stretch.

Inventory

2054

RIB 2054

RIB 2054: leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) III (‘Second Legion Augusta Third Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found before 1783 at Glasson. Source: RIB I p.629

2055

RIB 2055

RIB 2055: Matri/bus suis / milite[s] / [… (‘For their own mother goddesses, the soldiers…’). Altar found before 1834 SE of Bowness. Now built into farm building in village. Source: RIB I p.629

Analysis

We find the Second Legion building the Stone Wall here (2054), presumably during the initial replacement of the Turf Wall, whilst the altar for the mother goddesses now at Port Carlisle (2055) probably comes from the nearby Milecastle 79.

PLV Inscriptions (Drumburgh)

Introduction

Time and erosion have deprived us of the inscriptions on the two Roman altars that stand outside Drumburgh Castle, but there are a few legible inscriptions from the site.

Inventory

2051

RIB 2051

RIB 2051: coh(ors) VII (‘the Seventh Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found before 1874 in the gable of a stable opposite Drumburgh Castle. Source: RIB I pp.628-9

2052

RIB 2052

RIB 2052: coh(ors) VIII (‘the Eighth Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found in 1783 in a house in Drumburgh. Source: RIB I p.629

2053

RIB 2053

RIB 2053: Pedatura / Vindo/moruci (‘Length (built by) Vindomorucus’). Building stone found in 1859 at Drumburgh. Source: RIB I p.629

Analysis

The two stones erected by the Seventh and Eighth Cohorts (2051-2) must date to the replacement of the turf fort with the stone one (although it is possible they may equally derive from the curtain wall). The stone (2053) recording work by the Vindomoruci (presumably from the area around Vindomora, modern Ebchester in County Durham) on the other hand probably belongs to the Severan rebuild, when tribal levies are found at work.

PLV Inscriptions (Burgh-by-Sands to Drumburgh)

Introduction

The paucity of inscriptions from this stretch probably reflects the fact that some three miles of the Wall across Burgh Marsh have never been detected and may not have been available to be robbed for building stone. It is difficult to believe that there were any fewer inscriptions here than elsewhere along Hadrian’s Wall.

Inventory

RIB 2049: ICI[..] / […]I[.] / […]II[..] (‘?’). Building stone found before 1732 in Burgh by Sands. Source: RIB I p.628

2050

RIB 2050

RIB 2050: Matri(bus) / dom(esticis) / vex(illatio) / [l]eg(ionis) VI / [V(ictricis)] P(iae) F(idelis) (‘For the household mother goddesses a detachment of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (set this up)’). Altar found 1830 at Dykesfield, SW of MC73. Source: RIB I p.628

Analysis

With only two inscriptions available from the Burgh-nbby-Sands to Drumburgh stretch, and only one of those (2050) legible, it is difficult to draw conclusions about this particular epigraphic corpus. It is interesting to note that the Sixth Legion appear to be viewing the mother goddesses in much the same way as the Lares and Penates, in a domestic role. This altar was found near Milecastle 73, just east of Burgh Marsh, and once more may reflect a legionary detachment acting in a garrison role.

PLV Inscriptions (Burgh-by-Sands)

Introduction

As with other western sites on the Wall, Burgh has not exactly been over=productive in its epigraphy.

Inventory

2038

RIB 2038

RIB 2038: Deo / Bela/tuca(dro) (‘For the god Belatucadrus’). Altar found before 1769 in the vicarage garden at Burgh. Now lost. Source: RIB I pp.624-5

2039

RIB 2039

RIB 2039: Deo Belato/cadro Antr(onius) / Auf(idianus) posuit ar/am pro se et s/uis (‘For the god Belatucadrus, Antronius Aufidianus set up this altar for himself and for his family’). Altar found at Hallstones near Burgh. Source: RIB I p.625

2040

RIB 2040

RIB 2040: Herculi et / Numini / Aug(usti) coh(ors) / [… (‘For Hercules and the seity of the Emperor, the … Cohort …’). Altar found at Kiln Garth, NW of Burgh fort. Source: RIB I p.625

2041

RIB 2041

RIB 2041: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) [I] Nervan[a] / Germanorum / mil(liaria) eq(uitata) / cui praeest / P(ublius) Tusc[i]l(ius) CLND/ssinianu[s t]r[ib]u[n(us)] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Cohort of Nervan Germans, double strength, part mounted, which is commanded by Publius Tuscilius …]asianus, tribune (set this up)’). Altar found 1825 in the Eden ½ mile N of Beaumont. Source: RIB I p.625

2042

RIB 2042

RIB 2042: [I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo)] / [e]t numinib/us Auggg(ustorum) n(umerus) / Maur(o)rum / Aur(elianorum) Valer/iani(anus) Gallie/ni(anus) q(uorum) c(uram) a(git) Fl(avius) / Vibianu/s trib(unus) coh(ortis) / [p(rae)]p(ositus) n(umeri) s(upra) s(cripti) i(n)st/[a]nte Iul(io) R/ufino pri/ncipe (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest and the divinitiess of the two Emperors, the unit of Aurelian Moors, called Valerian’s and Galerian’s, Caelius Vibianus, cohort tribune in charge of the above mentioned unit, (set this up) under the direction of Iulius Rufinus, princeps‘). Altar found 1934 in a cottage in Beaumont. Source: RIB I p.625

2043

RIB 2043

RIB 2043: Deae / Lati / Lucius / Ursei (‘For the goddess Latis, Lucius Urseius (set this up)’). Altar found in 1843 at Fallsteads/Foldsteads 1 mile S of Kirkbampton. Source: RIB I p.626

RIB 2044: Marti / Belatu/cad(ro) sa(n)ct(o) / MATVSI (‘For Mars Belatucadrus the holy…’). Altar found in 1881 in Burgh by Sands church. Source: RIB I p.626

RIB 2045: …]ALA TVVP Po/s(tumius) Cen[s]orinus / [pro] salute sua / [et suorum] pos(uit) (‘… Postumius Censorinus set this up for the welfare of himself and his family’). Altar found before 1750 in Burgh. Source: RIB I p.627

2046

RIB 2046

RIB 2046: …] / Iul(ius) Pi[…]/tinus civ/es Dacus (‘… Iulius … a Dacian tribesman’). Tombstone found 1855 to the S of Burgh fort. Source: RIB I p.627

2047

RIB 2047

RIB 2047: [D(is)] M(anibus) s(acrum) / [… (‘Sacred for the divine shades…’). Tombstone fragment found with RIB 2046 in 1855. Source: RIB I p.627

2048

RIB 2048

RIB 2048: VII (‘7’). Fragment found with RIB 2046 in 1855. Source: RIB I p.627

Analysis

The worship of Belatucadrus (2038-9, 2044) is once again prominent and there is the usual crop of Jupiter altars set up by unit commanders (2041-2). We also find an altar to the rather unusual deity Latis, otherwise found at Birdoswald (1897). The Moors mentioned in 2042 recall the story in the Historia Augusta (Severus 22.4-5) about Septimius Severus’ ill-omened encounter with a black man near Hadrian’s Wall. Other residents from elsewhere in the empire included German troops (2041) and a Dacian (2046).

PLV Inscriptions (Stanwix to Burgh-by-Sands)

Introduction

The absence of consolidated lengths of curtain wall is again evident in the paucity of centurial inscriptions in this section.

Inventory

RIB 2031: c(enturia) Vesn(i) / Viator(is) (‘the century of Vesnius Viator (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1951 in the Eden. Source: RIB I p.622

RIB 2032: coh(ortis) / IIII / (h)asta(ti) (‘Fourth Cohort, (the century of the) hastatus (prior built this)’). Found 1939 in the keep at Carlisle Castle. Source: RIB I p.622

RIB 2033: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) (‘First Cohort, the century of the primus pilus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1949 in the River Eden opposite Stainton. Source: RIB I p.623

2034

RIB 2034

RIB 2034: …] / L(ucius) Iunius Vic/torinus Fl[av(ius)] / Caelianus leg(atus) / Aug(usti) leg(ionis) VI Vic(tricis) / P(iae) F(idelis) ob res trans / vallum pro/spere gestas (‘…Lucius Iunius Victorinus Flavius Caelianus, commander of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (set this up) following successful events north of The Wall’). Altar found 1803 at Kirksteads. Source: RIB I p.623

2035

RIB 2035

RIB 2035: leg(ionis) XX / Val(eriae) Vi(ctricis) / [c]oh(ors) V (‘Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix, Fifth Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found about 1820 in the Eden near Beaumont. Source: RIB I p.623

RIB 2036: …]SAC[…] / […]V[… (‘?’). Fragment found in 1886 behind a house in Beaumont. Source: RIB I p.624

RIB 2037: …]PA[…] / […]V[… (‘?’). Fragment found in 1886 behind a house in Beaumont. Source: RIB I p.624

Analysis

The few centurial stones (2031-3) probably date to the replacement of the Turf Wall in stone under Antoninus Pius.

The peltate terminal on the Twentieth Legion’s building stone (2035) betrays the fact that it too is Antonine in date, so belongs to the period between the return from the Antonine Wall and the Severan reconstruction.

By far the most interesting inscription is that on the altar set up by the commander of the Sixth Legion (2034) to mark successes ‘trans vallum‘ (beyond the Wall). This confirms other sources which refer to the Wall as vallum (rampart), not murus (wall) as might be expected.

PLV Inscriptions (Stanwix)

Introduction

The fort of the largest unit on Hadrian’s Wall, the double-strength cavalry unit of ala Petriana, is poorly understood and has not produced the volume of inscriptions of some smaller forts elsewhere. Paradoxically, none of the inscriptions actually mentions the unit, although a cavalryman is depicted on one of the tombstones.

Inventory

RIB 2025: Matribu[s d]/omesticis [s]/uis Asin[ius] / S[e]nili[s] v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) [m(erito)] (‘For his household mother goddesses, Asinius Senilis willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1725 and taken to Scelby Castle. Source: RIB I p.620

2026

RIB 2026

RIB 2026: Dedica[ta] / Imp(eratore) Vero [III et] / Um(m)idio [Quadrato] / [co(n)s(ulibus)] (‘Dedicated in the consulship of the Emperor Verus, for the third time, and of Um(m)idius Quadratus’). Altar fragment found in 1931 W of the fort. Source: RIB I p.620

RIB 2027: Leg(io) VI / Vic(trix) p(ia) f(idelis) / G[o]r(diana) r[e]f(ecit) (‘Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis Gordiana rebuilt this’). Building stone found 1599 (at Stanwix?). Source: RIB I pp.621-2

2028

RIB 2028

RIB 2028: Leg(ionis) XX Vic(tricis) / coh(ors) I fecit (‘Twentieth Legion (Valeria) Victrix, the First Cohort built this’). Building stone found before 1794 at Stanwix. Source: RIB I p.622

2029

RIB 2029

RIB 2029: Dis Manibu/s Marci Troiani / Augustini tit(ul)um fa/ciendum curavi/t Ael(ia) Ammillusima / coniux kariss(ima) (‘For the immortal shades, for Marcus Troianius Augustinus his most beloved wife Aelia Ammillusima had this tombstone set up’). Tombstone found at Stanwix in 1599, now at Drawdikes Castle. Source: RIB I p.621

2030

RIB 2030

RIB 2030: [D]i[s] Manibus / [… (‘For the immortal shades…’). Tombstone found in 1787 built into Stanwix church, now at Netherhall. Source: RIB I p.621

Analysis

The building inscriptions imply the construction in stone of the (originally turf-and-timber) fort by the Twentieth Legion (2028) and its refurbishment by the Sixth (2027) in AD 238–44, but this may be an over-simplistic interpretation. It is certainly salutary that no inscription names the unit in garrison, ala Petriana (which is named in the Notitia Dignitatum). The cavalry tombstone (2030), of the traditional ‘rider’ type showing a barbarian foe being trampled, leaves little room for doubt about a mounted presence here.

Podcastellum 5: Late Roman Hadrian’s Wall

It’s been a few months, but it is now time for another PLV Podcastellum. This is another interview conducted on the bus in Denmark, this time with Rob Collins, Portable Antiquities Scheme Finds Liaison Officer at the Great North Museum and specialist on Hadrian’s Wall in the Late Roman period (amongst other things; Rob is a versatile lad).

Rob's bookHe is the author of the magisterial Hadrian’s Wall and the End of Empire: The Roman Frontier in the 4th and 5th Centuries (which is mentioned in the podcast) but has also exhibited his talents as an editor in a volume about finds from Late Roman Britain, one of the CBA Research Reports, Finds from the Frontier: Material Culture in the 4th – 5th Centuries, which he co-edited with Lindsay Allason-Jones. Turning the tables on Lindsay, Rob has now co-edited a forthcoming Festschrift volume for her with Frances McIntosh, Life in the Limes, which will be published by Oxbow books later this year (which, by a bizarre coincidence, I have ended up typesetting).

I hope you enjoy listening to Rob and are not too distracted by the rumble of the bus or the chatter of the others around us.

The podcast is available as an MP3 file (65Mb: this one’s a biggie!). If there is enough demand I can create an Ogg Vorbis file too, but you have to tell me you want it. Right click to download. A bit torrent link is also available. Finally, if you prefer, you can stream it directly from the archive.org web page.

With a fair wind and a measure of good fortune, you can subscribe to the podcast series using this link.

The PLV eboojs

PLV Inscriptions (Castlesteads to Stanwix)

Introduction

Another stretch of stone Wall replacing the Turf Wall, the number of inscriptions between Castlesteads and Stanwix is smaller by comparison with other areas to the east due to the lack of consolidated stretches of curtain wall (the process of consolidation usually producing a rich haul of building stones).

Inventory

2010

RIB 2010

RIB 2010: c(enturia) Romani (‘The century of Romanus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1792 on Hadrian’s Wall near Castlesteads fort. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.616

RIB 2011: vexil/latio / leg(ionis) II / Aug(ustae) / refecit (‘a detachment of the Second Legion Augusta rebuilt this’). Building stone found 1615 near Irthington Bridge. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.616

2012

RIB 2012

RIB 2012: leg(io) II Aug(usta) / fecit (‘Second Legion Augusta built this’). Building stone found in 1853 in debris from Milecastle 58. Source: RIB I p.617

2013

RIB 2013

RIB 2013: c(enturia) Iuli / Subsion(is) (‘the century of Iulius Subsio (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1873 at Whiteflat, near Turret 53a. Source: RIB I p.617

2014

RIB 2014

RIB 2014: c(ohors) IV / Lin(gonum) f(ecit) (‘Fourth Cohort of Lingones built this’). Buildingstone found before 1949 immediately N of Hurtleton Farm. Source: RIB I p.617

2015

RIB 2015

RIB 2015: [D]eo / Marti [C]ocidio / [..] Martius / [c(enturio)] [c]oh(ortis) I Ba[t(avorum)] / [et] Genio / […]vali / [v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens)] m(erito) (‘For the god Mars Cocidius … Martius centurion of the First Cohort of Batavians and for the Genius of …valium willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1813 in the Wall foundations W of Milecastle 59. Source: RIB I pp.617-18

2016

RIB 2016

RIB 2016: leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / c(enturia) Iuli Te/rtullia(ni) (‘Second Legion Augusta, the century of Iulius Tertullianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 in E end of Old Wall. Source: RIB I p.618

RIB 2017: c[oh(ortis)] VII / [……] (‘Seventh Cohort… (built this)’). ?Centurial stone found 1894 in derelict house at Old Wall. Source: RIB I p.618

RIB 2018: c(enturia) Co[n]si[di / Iu]ncini (‘the century of Considius Iuncinus (built this)’). Centurial stone found at Old Wall before 1732. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.618

RIB 2019: c(enturia) Treboni Nepoti(s) (‘the century of Trebonius Nepos (built this)’). Centurial stone found at Old Wall in 1832. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.618

2020

RIB 2020

RIB 2020: Deo / Cocidio / milites / leg(ionis) VI Vic(tricis) P(iae) F(idelis) (‘For the god Cocidius, soldiers of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (set this up)’). Building stone ploughed up near Milecastle 60 in 1851-2. Now lost. Source: RIB I pp.618-19

RIB 2021: [c(enturia)] C[l(audi)] Prisc[i] (‘the century of Claudius Priscus (built this)’). Centurial stone found at Blaetarn before 1599. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.619

RIB 2022: capud pe[d(aturae)] / civitat(is) / Brig (‘the beginning of the stretch (built by) the Brigantian canton’). Building stone found before 1794 at Blaetarn. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.619

RIB 2023: coh(ortis) IIII pr(incipis) pos(terioris) / c(enturia) Iul(i) Vitalis (‘Fourth Cohort, the century of the princeps posterior Iulius Vitalis (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 at Drawdikes Castle. Source: RIB I p.619

2024

RIB 2024

RIB 2024: Marti Coc(idio) m(ilites) / leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / c(enturia) Sanctiana / c(enturia) Secundini / d(onum) sol(verunt) sub cu/ra Aeliani c(enturionis) / cura(vit) Oppius / [F]elix optio (‘For Mars Cocidius soldiers of the Second Legion Augusta, the former century of Sanctius, the century of Secundinus, fulfilled a vow with a gift under the command of centurion Aelianus, Oppius Felix, optio, supervised’). Altar found in 1804 on the line of the Wall near Milecastle 65. Source: RIB I p.619

RIB 3455: X (’10’). Building stone found 1990 in chancel of St Kentigern’s church, Irthington. Source: RIB III p.403

RIB 3456: c(enturia) Cassi Prisci (‘the century of Cassius Priscus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1813 at Old Wall. Now lost. Source: RIB III p.403

RIB 3457: ? (‘?’). Indecipherable building stone found 1976 between MC65 and Stanwix fort. Source: RIB III p.403

Analysis

The stone building inscriptions (2010–13, 2016–19, 2021–3, and 3455–7) in this sector must all relate to the Antonine replacement of the Turf Wall in stone, completed after the return from the Antonine Wall, or the Severan refurbishment of the Wall (with a civilian levy stone, 2022, probably from the last of these). The stone recording construction by the Fourth Cohort of Lingones (2014) came from close to the Vallum, which is known to have been constructed by auxiliary units.

Altars to the hunting god Cocidius come from Milecastles 59 (2015), 60 (2020), and 65 (2024). The last two of these were set up by legionary detachments. The traditional interpretation would be that this happened during the construction of the Wall in stone and that these were not garrison units (but note that there is nothing that specifically says this was the case).

PLV Inscriptions (Castlesteads)

Introduction

Castlesteads has not seen any excavation in recent years, so its crop of altars, dedications, and tombstones is mainly historical.

Inventory

RIB 1976: Deo / Belat/ugag/ro ar(am) / Minerv(alis) (‘For the god Belatugagrus, Minervalis (set up) an altar’). Altar found 1791 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.605

RIB 1977: Deo s(ancto) Be/latuca[d]/ro AVDO / […]ullinus / v(oto) s(oluto) (‘For the god Belatucadrus, …ullinus fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1694 in the River Irthing at Castlesteads. Now lost. Source: RIB i p.606

RIB 1978: Discipu/[l]inae / [A]ug[[gg(ustorum)]] // Discipu/[l]inae / [A]ug/usti (‘For the Discipline of the [three Augusti] Augustus’). Altar found before 1863 in stream near Kilsyke Hill. Source: RIB I p.606

RIB 1979: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) IIII Gal/lorum eq(uitata) / cui pr[ae(e)]s[t] / Ca[.]s[…] / Ir[…] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the Fourth Cohort of Gauls, part-mounted, which is commanded by Ca.s… Ir… (set this up)’). Altar found before 1711 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I pp.606-7

RIB 1980: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) IIII / Gallorum / c(ui) p(raeest) Volcaci/us Hospes / pr(a)ef(ectus) eq(uitum) (‘For Iupiter Optimus Maximus, the Fourth Cohort of Gauls, which is commanded by Volcacius Hospes, prefect of cavalry’). Altar found before 1712 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.607

RIB 1981

RIB 1981

RIB 1981: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) II Tungr(orum) / m(illiaria) eq(uitata) c(ivium) L(atinarum) cui / praeest Alb(ius) / Severus pr/aef(ectus) Tung(rorum) in/sta(nte) Vic(…) Severo / principi (‘For Iupiter Optimus Maximus, the Second Cohort of Tungrians, double strength, part-mounted, Latin citizens, which is commanded by Albius Severus, prefect of the Tungrians, directed by Vic… Severus, senior centurion, (set this up)’). Altar found 1818 in the Cambeck Water just S of the Wall. Source: RIB I p.607

RIB 1982: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / [c]oh(ors) I[I] Tung(rorum) [m]/il(liaria) eq(uitata) c(ivium) L(atinarum) cu[i pr]/aees[t] Aure[lius] / Optatus p[raef(ectus)] / Tun(grorum) instan[te] / Mes(sio) Opse[quente(!)] / p[r]inc[ipe] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the Second Cohort of Tungrians, double-strength, part-mounted, with Latin citizenship, which is commanded by Aurelius Optatus, prefect of the Tungrians, directed by the princeps Messius Obsequens, (set this up)’). Altar found 1607 at Castlesteads. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.608

RIB 1983

RIB 1983

RIB 1983: [I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo)] / et numi[ni Aug(usti)] / n(ostri) coh(ors) II Tu[n]/gror(um) Gor(diana) eq(uitata) / c(ivium) L(atinarum) cui prae/est Ti(berius) Cl(audius) Clau/di[anus] pra/ef(ectus) instante [P(ublio)] / Ael(io) Mart[i]n[o] / princ(ipe) K(alendis) Ian(uariis) / I[mp(eratore) d(omino) n(ostro)] G(ordiano) Aug(usto) II [et Po]/[mpeiano co(n)s(ulibus)] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, and the deity of our Emperor, the Second Cohort of Tungrians, called Gordiana, part-mounted, with Latin citizenship, which is commanded by Tiberius Claudius Claudianus, prefect, (set this up) directed by the princeps Publius Aelius Martinus, on the 1st of January in the consulship of our Lord and Emperor Gordian, for the second time, and Pompeianus’). Altar found 1660 at Castlesteads. This dates to AD 241. Source: RIB I pp.608-9

RIB 1984: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) et G(enio) / loci G(aius) Ve/recundius / Severus / v(otum) [s(olvit)] l(ibens) [m(erito)] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest and the Spirit of the Place, Gaius Verecundius Severus willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1791 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.609

RIB 1985: Iovi O(ptimo) M(aximo) / vo[tu]m (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, a vow’). Altar found 1791 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.609

RIB 1986: Deo sang(to) M/arti Venustin[i]/us Lupus v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the holy god Mars, Venustinius Lupus willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1726 at Castlesteads. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.609

RIB 1987: [De]o Marti / [s(ancto) e]t n(umini) Aug(usti) / […] Paco/[ni]us Satu/[rni]nus / [praef(ectus)] eq(uitum) posuit (‘For the holy god Mars and the spirit of the Emperor… Paconius Secundus, prefect of cavalry, set this up’). Altar found before 1792 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I pp.609-10

RIB 1988: [Deabu]s / [Mat]ribu[s] / omnium / gentium / templum / olim vetus/tate conlab/sum G(aius) Iul(ius) Cu/pitianus c(enturio) / p(rae)p(ositus) restituit (‘For the Mother Goddesses of all peoples, Gaius Iulius Cupitianus, centurion in charge, restored the temple, collapsed through age’). Altar found before 1728 reused in the S jamb of the E gate. Source: RIB I p.610

RIB 1989: Matri/bus Tr[a(ns)]/mar[inis] / [… (‘For the Mother Goddesses beyond the sea…’). Altar found 1748 at Castlesteads. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.610

RIB 1990: Deo / [N]ep/[tuno] / [… (‘For the god Neptune…’). Altar found before 1873 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.611

RIB 1991: N(umini) Aug(usti) / deo Vana/unti Aurel(ius) / Armiger / dec(urio) princ(eps) (‘For the spirit of the Emperor (and) for the god Vanauns, Aurelius Armiger, senior decurion (set this up)’). Altar found in the High Holm, 60yds S of the Wall and 140yds W of the River Cambeck. Source: RIB I p.611

RIB 1992: [Deo] Soli / [I]nvicto / Sex(tus) Seve/rius Sa/lvator / [pr]aef(ectus) / [v(otum) s(olvit)] l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the Inncible Sun God, Sextus Severius Salvator, prefect, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1695 at Castlesteads. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.611

RIB 1993: De[o] Soli / [Invi]cto / M[ith]r[a]e M[ar]/cus Liciniu[s] / Ripanus / praef(ectus) v(otum) s(olvit) [l(ibens) m(erito)] (‘For the Invincible Sun God Mithras, Marcus Licinius Ripanus, prefect, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found at ‘a fort’ on Hadrian’s Wall before 1604. Source: RIB I p.612

RIB 1994: Deo Soli Mit(h)r/[ae …]VIS / […]COR / […] (‘For the Sun God Mithras…’). Altar found before 1726 at Castlesteads. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.612

RIB 1995

RIB 1995

RIB 1995: Vict(oria) / Aug(usti) (‘The Victory of the Emperor’). Block found before 1732. Source: RIB I pp.612-13

RIB 1996: Deo / [..]VVI[..] / [..]CV[..] / [..]VI[…] (‘For the god…’). Altar found before 1792 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.613

RIB 1997: [Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) Trai]ano / [Hadriano Aug(usto) Pio p(atri) p(atriae) c]o(n)s(uli) III sub / [… (‘For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, father of his country, thrice consul, under…’). Fragment found before 1741 at Castlesteads. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.613

RIB 1998: …] DIO[…] / […]II[… (‘?’). Fragment found before 1741 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.613

RIB 1999: IV[…] / M[… sub] / cu[r]a [… c(enturionis)] / legionis XX G(ordianae) p(rae)p(ositi) coh(ortis) II / Tung(rorum) posuit (‘…under the charge of … the Emperor’s propraetorian legate, the Second Cohort of Tungrians set this up’). Dedication slab found 1600 in a hypocaust at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I pp.613-14

RIB 2000: leg(io) VI V(ictrix) / f(ecit) (‘the Sixth Legion built this’). Building stone found near the E gate before 1732 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.614

RIB 2001: coh(ortis) IIII / [has]ta(ti) pos(terioris) / [c(enturia?) Mar]ciana (‘Fourth Cohort, the century of the hastatus posterior, formerly Marcius’ (built this)’). Building stone fragments found before 1873 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.614

RIB 2002: I[..]BLASIOS / AI[..]B[.]INE[.]C / SVB […]P (‘?’). Found before 1779 at Castlesteads. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.614

RIB 2003

RIB 2003

RIB 2003: D(is) M(anibus) / Gemelli c(ustodis) a(rmorum) / Fl(avius) Hilario c(enturio) h(eres) f(aciendum) c(uravit) (‘For the immortal shades, for Gemellus, custos armorum, set up by the centurion Flavius Hilario, his heir’). Tombstone found before 1748 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.614

RIB 2004: [D(is)] M(anibus) / […]is ex / [… v]ix(it) an(nis) / [… die]b(us) IIIII / […] Aur(elia) / [… coniu]x (‘For the immortal shades… lived… years…, 5 days… his wife Aurelia…’). Tombstone found before 1792 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.615

RIB 2005: …]IL EC[…] / […]II ESSOR[…] / […]XXVIS[A] (‘?’). Tombstone found before 1792 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.615

RIB 2006: …]SOPH[…] / [.. c]oniugi sa[nctis]/[sim]ae et [… (‘…to his very pure and… wife…’). Tombstone fragment found at Walton in 1599. Source: RIB I p.615

RIB 2007: …]IE[…] / […]TILIO [… (‘?’). Fragment found at Castlesteads in 1601. Source: RIB I p.615

RIB 2008: …]IA[…] / […]RE[… (‘?’). Fragment found before 1873 at Castlesteads. Source: RIB I p.616

RIB 2009: MA[…] / IMV[…] / AII[… (‘?’). Fragment found 1901 near SW corner of fort. Source: RIB I p.616

Analysis

The usual unit dedications to Jupiter are represented by a sequence of altars (1979–83) set up by the two principal garrison units, cohortes IV Gallorum and II Tungrorum. Both of these were part-mounted and the Tungrians were additionally double strength. The trio of Mithraic altars (1991–4) appear to indicate the presence of a mithraeum in the vicus outside the fort. Dedications to Belatucadrus (1996–7) and the Mother Goddesses (1988–9) are also present, whilst an appeal to Discipulina (1998) need not imply unruliness. Altars to Mars (1986–7) do not occasion surprise, but one for Neptune (1990) is intriguing and may have been dedicated after a sea voyage or even an earth tremor.

Finally, the fragmentary figured tombstone of the hirsute (and almost certainly Antonine) Gemellus (2003), a custos armorum, attracts the attention. Although the precise function of a custos armorum is unknown, it is assumed they had some role in the monitoring and maintenance of equipment in a unit.