PLV Inscriptions (Castlesteads to Stanwix)

Introduction

Another stretch of stone Wall replacing the Turf Wall, the number of inscriptions between Castlesteads and Stanwix is smaller by comparison with other areas to the east due to the lack of consolidated stretches of curtain wall (the process of consolidation usually producing a rich haul of building stones).

Inventory

RIB 2010: c(enturia) Romani (‘The century of Romanus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1792 on Hadrian’s Wall near Castlesteads fort. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.616

RIB 2011: vexil/latio / leg(ionis) II / Aug(ustae) / refecit (‘a detachment of the Second Legion Augusta rebuilt this’). Building stone found 1615 near Irthington Bridge. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.616

RIB 2012

RIB 2012

RIB 2012: leg(io) II Aug(usta) / fecit (‘Second Legion Augusta built this’). Building stone found in 1853 in debris from Milecastle 58. Source: RIB I p.617

RIB 2013: c(enturia) Iuli / Subsion(is) (‘the century of Iulius Subsio (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1873 at Whiteflat, near Turret 53a. Source: RIB I p.617

RIB 2014: c(ohors) IV / Lin(gonum) f(ecit) (‘Fourth Cohort of Lingones built this’). Buildingstone found before 1949 immediately N of Hurtleton Farm. Source: RIB I p.617

RIB 2015: [D]eo / Marti [C]ocidio / [..] Martius / [c(enturio)] [c]oh(ortis) I Ba[t(avorum)] / [et] Genio / […]vali / [v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens)] m(erito) (‘For the god Mars Cocidius … Martius centurion of the First Cohort of Batavians and for the Genius of …valium willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1813 in the Wall foundations W of Milecastle 59. Source: RIB I pp.617-18

RIB 2016

RIB 2016

RIB 2016: leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / c(enturia) Iuli Te/rtullia(ni) (‘Second Legion Augusta, the century of Iulius Tertullianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 in E end of Old Wall. Source: RIB I p.618

RIB 2017: c[oh(ortis)] VII / [……] (‘Seventh Cohort… (built this)’). ?Centurial stone found 1894 in derelict house at Old Wall. Source: RIB I p.618

RIB 2018: c(enturia) Co[n]si[di / Iu]ncini (‘the century of Considius Iuncinus (built this)’). Centurial stone found at Old Wall before 1732. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.618

RIB 2019: c(enturia) Treboni Nepoti(s) (‘the century of Trebonius Nepos (built this)’). Centurial stone found at Old Wall in 1832. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.618

RIB 2020

RIB 2020

RIB 2020: Deo / Cocidio / milites / leg(ionis) VI Vic(tricis) P(iae) F(idelis) (‘For the god Cocidius, soldiers of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (set this up)’). Building stone ploughed up near Milecastle 60 in 1851-2. Now lost. Source: RIB I pp.618-19

RIB 2021: [c(enturia)] C[l(audi)] Prisc[i] (‘the century of Claudius Priscus (built this)’). Centurial stone found at Blaetarn before 1599. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.619

RIB 2022: capud pe[d(aturae)] / civitat(is) / Brig (‘the beginning of the stretch (built by) the Brigantian canton’). Building stone found before 1794 at Blaetarn. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.619

RIB 2023: coh(ortis) IIII pr(incipis) pos(terioris) / c(enturia) Iul(i) Vitalis (‘Fourth Cohort, the century of the princeps posterior Iulius Vitalis (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 at Drawdikes Castle. Source: RIB I p.619

RIB 2024: Marti Coc(idio) m(ilites) / leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / c(enturia) Sanctiana / c(enturia) Secundini / d(onum) sol(verunt) sub cu/ra Aeliani c(enturionis) / cura(vit) Oppius / [F]elix optio (‘For Mars Cocidius soldiers of the Second Legion Augusta, the former century of Sanctius, the century of Secundinus, fulfilled a vow with a gift under the command of centurion Aelianus, Oppius Felix, optio, supervised’). Altar found in 1804 on the line of the Wall near Milecastle 65. Source: RIB I p.619

RIB 3455: X (’10’). Building stone found 1990 in chancel of St Kentigern’s church, Irthington. Source: RIB III p.403

RIB 3456: c(enturia) Cassi Prisci (‘the century of Cassius Priscus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1813 at Old Wall. Now lost. Source: RIB III p.403

RIB 3457: ? (‘?’). Indecipherable building stone found 1976 between MC65 and Stanwix fort. Source: RIB III p.403

Analysis

The stone building inscriptions (2010–13, 2016–19, 2021–3, and 3455–7) in this sector must all relate to the Antonine replacement of the Turf Wall in stone, completed after the return from the Antonine Wall, or the Severan refurbishment of the Wall (with a civilian levy stone, 2022, probably from the last of these). The stone recording construction by the Fourth Cohort of Lingones (2014) came from close to the Vallum, which is known to have been constructed by auxiliary units.

Altars to the hunting god Cocidius come from Milecastles 59 (2015), 60 (2020), and 65 (2024). The last two of these were set up by legionary detachments. The traditional interpretation would be that this happened during the construction of the Wall in stone and that these were not garrison units (but note that there is nothing that specifically says this was the case).

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