About Mike Bishop

An archaeologist who walks, drives, cycles, flies, photographs, draws, writes about, and (once, in horizontal snow...) digs Hadrian's Wall, armed only with a trusty yet gleaming Creative Commons licence.

The Roman Army A to Z: castra

castra (n. pl.)

Camp or fortification under the later Republic and Principate; c. aestiva: Literally ‘summer camp’, a campaign camp (Tac., Ann. 1.16; 1.37); c. hiberna: winter quarters, used of what are nowadays called ‘fortresses’ and ‘forts’ (AE 1948, 120; 1964, 148); c. peregrinorum: Base on the Caelian Hill for provincial troops visiting Rome (Amm. 16.12.66; CIL VI, 231; 36775); c. praetoria: Base for the praetoriae cohortes situated on the north-western outskirts of Rome and constructed with defences of brick-faced concrete under Tiberius (Tac., Ann. 4.1–2; Pliny, NH 3.30 CIL VI, 2843); c. stativa: Catch-all term for temporary and permanent fortifications such as c. aestiva and hiberna (Veg., DRM 3.8; Tac., Ann. 3.21). [Johnson 1983]

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