The Roman Army A to Z: tiro

tiro (m. pl. tirones)

A new recruit. Suet., Tib. 42.1; ChLa 42.1212; P. Mich. 8.471. [Goldsworthy 2003]


The Roman Army A to Z: thoracomachus

thoracomachus (m. pl. thorachomachi)

Padded garment worn under armour and made of felt and leather, according to the only source for this term (which advocates its use instead of armour). It is presumed to be the same item as the subarmalis (q.v.). DRB 15.1. See also subarmalis [Bishop and Coulston 2006]

The Roman Army A to Z: testudo

testudo (f. pl. testudines)

Literally ‘tortoise’; 1. A close formation whereby soldiers covered their heads with their shields, leaving no gaps (Livy 34.39.6; Caes., BG 2.6.2); 2. a type of wheeled timber shed, covered with hides, used to protect a battering ram (Veg., DRM 4.14; Vitr. 10.13.2); 3. a stationary defensive cavalry formation in the primary phase of the hippika gymnasia, with the riders facing to the rear and covering their horse’s rump (and themselves) with their shield whilst opponents threw javelins at them (Arr., Tech. Tak. 43). [Cowan 2007; Hyland 1993]