PLV Inscriptions (Birdoswald to Castlesteads)

Introduction

This section of the Stone Wall includes centurial stones from the curtain wall, altars and other inscriptions from milecastles, as well as quarry inscriptions from Coombe Crag and Lodge Crag.

Inventory

RIB 1930: coh(ortis) IIII / c(enturia) Probian(a) (‘Fourth Cohort the former century of Probus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1833 30ft W of the NW corner of Birdoswald fort. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.595

RIB 1931: c(enturia) Hort/ensia/na (‘the former century of Hortensius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1857 in a field wall ½ mile W of Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.595

RIB 1932: leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) [coh(ors)] / VII su[b] / [cu]ra / [… (‘Second Legion Augusta, Seventh Cohort, in the charge of…’). Dedication slab found unstratified in Milecastle 50 SW in 1911. Source: RIB I p.596.

RIB 1933: vex]sil(latio) / [leg(ionis) VI Vi]c(tricis) / [… (‘…vexillation of the Sixth Legion Victrix…’). Dedication slab found unstratified outside the SE corner of Milecastle 50 SW in 1911. Source: RIB I p.596.

RIB 1934

RIB 1934

RIB 1934: [L]eg(io) VI Vic(trix) / [P(ia)] Fidelis / f(ecit) (‘Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Dedication slab found about 1849 at MC50SW (left) and Birdoswald farmhouse garden wall (right). Source: RIB I p.596

RIB 1935: [Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) Traiani] / [Had]ria[ni Augusti] / [leg(io) … A(ulo)] Pl[atorio Nepote] / [leg(ato) pr(o) pr(aetore)] (‘Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus the […]th Legion… under Aulus Platorius Nepos, governor…’). Wooden dedication found in Pit B of MC50TW in 1934. Source: RIB I p.596

RIB 1936: c(enturia) Cari(si) Scipion(is) (‘the century of Carisius Scipio (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1896 in NE corner of High House farm. Source: RIB I p.597

RIB 1937: c(enturia) Floriani / c(o)h[o(rtis)] VIII / leg(ionis) [V]I (‘the century of Florianus, Eighth Cohort, Sixth Legion (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1941 in NW corner of High House farm. Source: RIB I p.597

RIB 1938

RIB 1938

RIB 1938: Leg(io) VI Vic(trix) / P(ia) Fidelis / f(ecit) (‘Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Red sandstone dedication slab found 1911 in T50aSW. Source: RIB I p.597

RIB 1939: Leg(io)] VI V[ic(trix)… (‘Sixth Legion Victrix…’). Red sandstone dedication slab found 1911 in T50aSW. Source: RIB I p.597

RIB 1940: c(enturia) […]didi (‘the century of …didus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1934 in a field wall E of Appletree barn. Source: RIB I p.598

RIB 1941: c(enturia) coh(ortis) I / […]len[…] (‘First Cohort, then century of …len… (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1732 in Lanerton farmhouse. Source: RIB I p.598

RIB 1942: c(enturia) […] (‘the century of… (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1732 in Lanerton farmhouse. Source: RIB I p.598

RIB 1943: c(o)ho(rtis) VIIII / [c(enturia)] Mar(ci) Ruf(i) (‘Ninth Cohort, the century of Marcius Rufus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1604 at Triermain. Source: RIB I p.598

RIB 1944: ped(atura) / cl(assis) Brit(annicae) (‘the distance in feet by the British Fleet’). Building stone seen 1604 at Triermain Castle. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.598

RIB 1945

RIB 1945

RIB 1945: ped(atura) cla(ssis) / Bri(tannicae) (‘the distance in feet by the British Fleet’). Building stone seen (in 1772?) at Netherby. Source: RIB I p.599

RIB 1946

RIB 1946

RIB 1946: …] Securus / c(enturia) Ap[…] / Iustus (‘Securus, the century of Ap…, Iustus’). Quarry inscription found before 1817 at Coombe Crag. Source: RIB I p.599

RIB 1947

RIB 1947

RIB 1947: Maternus (‘Maternus’). Quarry inscription found before 1817 at Coombe Crag. Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1948: Matern[us] (‘Maternus’). Quarry inscription found before 1817 at Coombe Crag. Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1949: DE (‘?’). Quarry inscription found before 1817 at Coombe Crag. Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1950: Iulius (‘Iulius’). Quarry inscription found before 1817 at Coombe Crag. Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1951: Stadus f(ecit) (‘Stadus made this’). Quarry inscription found before 1817 at Coombe Crag. Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1952: [A]pol(l)onius Daminius nolui / [..]dos / [.]S[…] (‘Apollonius, I Daminius, did not wish (to do it)’). Quarry inscription found before 1817 at Coombe Crag. Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1953: Leg(io) VI Vict(rix) P(ia) F(idelis) (‘Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (made this)’). Quarry inscription found in 1694 at Lodge Crag. Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1954: Aurea per caelum volitat Victoria pennis (‘Golden Victory flies across the sky on wings’). Quarry inscription found in 1694 at Lodge Crag. Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1955

RIB 1955

RIB 1955: Deo / Cocidio / milites / l[eg(ionis)] II Aug(ustae) / [v(otum)] s(olverunt) l(ibentes) m(erito) (‘For the god Cocidius, the soldiers of the Second Legion Augusta willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found in 1808 in Bankshead Milecastle (52). Source: RIB I p.600

RIB 1956

RIB 1956

RIB 1956: Deo / Cocidio / milites / leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) v(ictricis) / v(otum) s(olverunt) l(ibentes) m(erito) / Apr(…) et Ruf(…) co(n)s(ulibus) (‘For the god Cocidius, the soldiers of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found in 1808 in Bankshead Milecastle (52). Source: RIB I p.601

RIB 1957: Im[p(eratore) C(aesare) T(ito) Ael(io)] / Hadri[ano] / Anto[nino (‘Under the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus’). Fragment found in 1862 in Bankshead Milecastle (52). Source: RIB I p.601

RIB 1958

RIB 1958

RIB 1958: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) (‘the century of the primus pilus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1894 at Moneyholes. Now at Hare Hill. Source: RIB I p.601

RIB 1959: coh(ors) / VIII (‘The Eighth Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found before 1841 near Randylands Milecastle (54). Source: RIB I p.602

RIB 1960: coh(ors) / VIIII (‘The Ninth Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found before 1732 near Randylands Milecastle (54). Source: RIB I p.602

RIB 1961: Deo / Cocid[io] / vexil(l)[atio] / leg(ionis) VI v[ic(tricis)] / [v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito)] (‘For the god Cocidius, a detachment of the Sixth Legion Victrix willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1808 in a cottage garden at Howgill. Source: RIB I p.602

RIB 1962

RIB 1962

RIB 1962: Civitate Cat/uvellaun/orum Toss/[o]dio (‘By the tribe of Catuvellauni, Tossodius (built this)’). Building inscription found before 1718 at Howgill. Source: RIB I p.602

RIB 1963: Deo Co[cidio…] (‘For the god Cocidius…’). Altar found 1833 at Low Wall. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.603

RIB 1964: leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) I (‘Second Legion Augusta, First Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found at Naworth Castle before 1696. Source: RIB I p.603

RIB 1965: l(egionis) II Aug(ustae) / c(enturia) Vol/usia/na (‘Second Legion Augusta, the former century of Volusius (built this)’). Building stone found at Naworth Castle before 1624. Source: RIB I p.603

RIB 1966: Leg(io) VI Vic(trix) / Pia Fid(elis) f(ecit) (‘Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Building stone found 1744 in a house at Naworth. Source: RIB I p.603

RIB 1967: Leg(io) VI / Vic(trix) P(ia) F(idelis) f(ecit) (‘Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Building stone found before 1840 at Lanercost. Source: RIB I p.603

RIB 1968

RIB 1968

RIB 1968: Leg(io) VI V[ic(trix)] / Pia Fid(elis) [f(ecit)] (‘Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Building stone found before 1941 on N face of pele tower of Lanercost vicarage. Source: RIB I p.604

RIB 1969: coh(ortis) IIII c(enturia) / Auruncul(e)i (‘Fourth Cohort, the century of Aurunculeius (built this)’). Centurial stone found c.1938 on S face of N boundary wall at Lanercost Priory, 38 yds from E end. Source: RIB I p.604

RIB 1970: coh(ortis) VIII / |(centuria) Iuli Ter/tulliani (‘Eighth Cohort, the century of Iulius Tertullianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1624 in wall near garden back door at Naworth castle. Source: RIB I p.604

RIB 1971

RIB 1971

RIB 1971: coh(ortis) X / [c(enturia)] Pi[…] (‘Tenth Cohort, the century of Pi… (built this)’). Centurial stone found before c.1857 in E wall of crypt at Lanercost Priory near SE corner. Source: RIB I pp.604-5

RIB 1972: c(enturia) Cl(audi) Prisci (‘the century of Claudius Priscus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 at Naworth Castle. Now Lost. Source: RIB I p.605

RIB 1973: c(enturia) Cl(audi) Prisci (‘the century of Claudius Priscus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1833 at Lanercost, rediscovered during farmyard construction in 1860. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.605

RIB 1974: c(enturia)] Bassi S/[…]lis (‘the century of Bassius S… (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1624 at Naworth. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.605

RIB 1975: […] / CEO[… (‘?’). Building stone found 1833 at Lanercost. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.605

RIB 3449: coh(ortis) VI / c(enturia) Pompei / Albani (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Pompeius Albanus (built this)’). Centurial stone found c.1957 c.183m W of Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB III p.399

RIB 3450: IIV (‘?’). Building stone found 1987 248.5m W of Birdoswald. Source: RIB III p.399

RIB 3451: c(enturia) Eppi / Con(stantis) (‘the century of Eppius Constnas (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1966 in field wall 270.8m W of Birdoswald and 24.7m S of the Wall. Source: RIB III p.400

RIB 3452: SIA BLEI / SVROS (‘?’). Quarry inscription found 1991 in situ at Coombe Crag. Source: RIB III p.401

RIB 3453: c(enturia) Cand[i]d[i] / Cres[ce]nt(is) (‘the century of Candidius Crescens (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1970 128.3m E of Turret 51a (Piper Sike). Source: RIB III p.402

RIB 3454: coh(ortis) III c(enturia) / M(arci) Solli Iuliani (‘Third Cohort, the century of Marcus Sollius Iulianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1975 at Hare Hill where Hare Croft now stands. Source: RIB III pp.402-3

Analysis

This selection contains an important clue to a major missing epigraphic element on Hadrian’s Wall: wooden inscriptions. Although inscriptions on barrels, handles, and sundry other bits of waterlogged accoutrements that are dug up are by now quite familiar to us, largely thanks to the Vindolanda excavations, we must not forget that all the forts and milecastles west of the Irthing were first built in turf and timber as part of the Turf Wall. This (1935) is the only fragment of monumental inscription to have been recovered from them. Wooden inscriptions may have had their part to play elsewhere too, perhaps representing a whole missing class of data for the grave markers of the poor all along the Wall. Wood was ubiquitous, but is largely lost to us now except in unusual circumstances.

There are evidently at least three sets of work represented by the building inscriptions along this stretch (1930-45, 1957-60, 1962, 1964-74, 3449, 3451, 3453-4). There was the initial construction of the Turf Wall; then the replacement Stone Wall (on a different line); finally a reconstruction of the Stone Wall to make up for its shoddy workmanship in the first place. The presence of quarries nearby provides us with the doodlings of soldiers actually building the Wall (1946-54), including the wistful musing on an airborne Victory (1954).

Finally, as ever, the soldiers in the milecastles were dedicating altars to Cocidius (1954-6, 1961, 1963). Four out of five of these, it is worth noting, were dedicated by legionary soldiers.

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PLV Inscriptions (Birdoswald)

Introduction

Unsurprisingly, the principal garrison unit at Birdoswald, cohors I Aelia Dacorum, dominates the inscriptions from the site. A fine series of altars dedicated to Jupiter preserves the names of some of the commanders of the unit.

Inventory

RIB 1872: Deo Cocidio / coh(ors) I Aelia / [Dacorum c(ui) p(raeest)] / [Tere]ntius / Valerianus / [trib(unus) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito)] (‘For the god Cocidius, the First Cohort of Aelian Dacians, which is commanded by the tribune Terentius Valerianus, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1695, probably at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.577

RIB 1873: Deae / Fortu/nae (‘For the goddess Fortuna’). Altar found before 1758 built into Birdoswald farmhouse. Source: RIB I p.577

RIB 1874: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / co(hors) I Aelia / Dacorum / qu(i)b(us) pr(a)eest / Ammonius / Victorinus / trib(unus) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by Ammonius Victorinus, tribune (set this up)’). Altar found at Birdoswald before 1758. Source: RIB I p.577

RIB 1875: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / [co]h(ors) I Ael(ia) Dac/[orum] c(ui) p(rae)est / [A]urelius Fa(u)s/[t]us trib(unus) / [Pe]rpetuo / co(n)s(ule) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by Aurelius Faustus, tribune (set this up) in the consulship of Perpetuus’). Altar found at Birdoswald before 1600. Perpetuus was consul in AD 237. Source: RIB I pp.577-8

RIB 1876: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / [c]oh(ors) I Ael(ia) Da[c(orum)] / c(uius) c(uram) agit A/urel(ius) Sa[t]urn[inus (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Cohort of Aelian Dacians under the command of Aurelius Saturninus (set this up)’). Altar found 1599 at Willowford farm house. Now lost. Source: RIB I pp.578-9

RIB 1877: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / c[o]h(ors) I / Aelia / Daco[r]/um Aug(usta) / [cui] p(raeest) Aur(elius) / […] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, called Augusta, which is commanded by Aurelius […] (set this up)’). Altar found before 1868 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.579

RIB 1878: [I(ovi)] O(ptimo) M(aximo) / [coh(ors) I A]el(ia) Da/[corum] c(ui) p(raeest) F[l(avius)] / [… (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, which is commanded by Flavius […] (set this up)’). Altar found before 1894 in Greenhead. Source: RIB I p.579

RIB 1879: I(ovi) O(ptimo) [M(aximo)] / [coh(ors) I Ael(ia)] / Dac(orum) cu[i pr]/aeest […] / Funisul[an]/us Vetto[ni]/anus t[ri]/b(unus) v(otum) [s(olvit)] l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians which is commanded by the tribune [.] Funisulanus Vettonianus, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1861 in Scaleby church. Source: RIB I p.579

RIB 1880

RIB 1880

RIB 1880: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) I Ael(ia) Da/cor(um) c(uius) c(uram) a(git) Iul(ius) / Marcelli/nus |(centurio) leg(ionis) II / Aug(ustae) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Cohort of Aelian Dacians under the temporary command of Iulius Marcellinus, centurion of the Second Legion Augusta, (set this up)’). Altar found in the face of the cliff above Underheugh Farm. Source: RIB I p.579

RIB 1881

RIB 1881

RIB 1881: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / c(o)ho(rs) I A[el(ia)] / Dac(orum) cui p[rae]/est Iuliu[s] / Saturnin[us] / tribun[us] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Cohort of Aelian Dacians under the command of Iulius Saturninus, tribune, (set this up)’). Altar found in 1744 in the SE corner of the clerestory passage of Lanercost Priory. Source: RIB I p.579

RIB 1882: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / et n(umini) Aug(usti) / coh(ors) I Ael(ia) / Dac(orum) c(ui) p(raeest) M(arcius) / Gallicus / trib(unus) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest and the spirit of the Emperor, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, cammanded by the tribune Marcius Gallicus, (set this up)’). Altar found before 1852 ‘at Waterhead’ (in which parish Birdoswald is located). Source: RIB I p.580

RIB 1883: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) I Ael(ia) Dac(orum) / Postumi[ana] / c(ui) p(raeest) Marc(ius) / Gallicus / trib(unus) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, called Postumus’, which is commanded by the tribune Marcius Gallicus, (set this up)’). Altar found 1746 100 yds E of Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.580

RIB 1884: [I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo)] / [coh(ors) I] Ael(ia) [Daco]/[rum] c(ui) p(raeest) Do[mit]/[ius H]onor[atus] / tri[b(unus)] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by the tribune Domitius Honoratus, (set this up)’). Altar found before 1898 in the northern outbuilding at Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.580

RIB 1885: Deo / Co[c]i[dio] // I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) I Ael(ia) D[a]c(orum) / Tetricianoru/m c(ui) p(raeest) Pomp[on]/[i]us D[eside]/rat[us …] / t[rib(unus) (‘For the god Cocidius // For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, called Tetrician, under the command of the tribune Pomponius Desideratus, (set this up)’). Altar found 1599 in one of the farm buildings at Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.581

RIB 1886: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) I Ael(ia) / Dacoru[m] / Postum[i]/ana c(ui) p(raeest) / Prob(ius) Au/gendus / trib(unus) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, called Postumian, commanded by the tribune Probius Augendus, (set this up)’). Altar found 1747 100 yds E of Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.581

RIB 1887: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) I Ael(ia) / Dac(orum) c(ui) p(raeest) / Stat(ius) Lon/ginus trib(unus) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by the tribune Statius Longinus, (set this up)’). Altar found 1599 at Willowford bridge. Source: RIB I p.582

RIB 1888: [I(ovi)] O(ptimo) M(aximo) / [coh(ors) I A]el(ia) Dac(orum) / [cui pr]aeest / […]us Con/[… t]rib(unus) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by the tribune (…)us Con(…), (set this up)’). Plaque found 1833 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.583

RIB 1889: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) I Ae(lia) / Dac(orum) cui / [p]raees[t] / [… (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by…’). Altar found before 1601 at Willowford. Source: RIB I p.583

RIB 1890: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / co(hors) I Aelia / Dacorum / cui pr(a)eest / […] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by […] (set this up)’). Altar found before 1732 built into an outhouse at Willowford. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.583

RIB 1891: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) I Aelia / Dac[or(um)] c(ui) p(raeest) / […] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by […] (set this up)’). Altar found at Underheugh reused as a pig trough. Source: RIB I p.583

RIB 1892: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / coh(ors) I Aeli[a] / Dac(orum) Anto(niniana) / [… (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians called Antonine, [commanded by…] (set this up)’). Altar found before 1727 at Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.583

RIB 1893: I(ovi) O(ptimo) [M(aximo)] / coh(ors) I Ael(ia) / Dac(orum) Gordi/ana c(ui) p(rae)est / […] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians called Gordian, commanded by […] (set this up)’). Altar found 1599 at Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.584

RIB 1894: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / co[h(ors)] I A[el(ia)] / [Dac(orum) …] / […] / M[…] / NV[…]A / […]ius / […]rin(.) b(ene)f(iciarius) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians… williangly and deservedly fulfilled a vow, with …inus, beneficiarius’). Altar found before 1873, probably at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.584

RIB 1895: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / […] / […] / […] / [..]S tri(bunus) (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest… […]s, tribune…’). Altar found 1881 reused in altar steps at Upper Denton church. Source: RIB I p.584

RIB 1896: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) [D(olicheno)] / coh(ors) I A[el(ia) Dac(orum)] / c(ui) p(raeest) Flavi[us Ma]/ximia[nus] / trib(unus) ex [evoc(ato) c(ohortis)] / I pr(aetoriae) Ma[ximin(ianae)] (‘For Iupiter Dolichenus Best and Greatest, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by the tribune Flavius Maximianus, formerly an evocatus of the First Praetorian Cohort, called Maximinian’). Altar found before 1732 in the courtyard at Willowford. Source: RIB I p.585

RIB 1897: Di(a)e / Lat[i] (‘For the goddess Latis’). Altar found before 1873 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.585

RIB 1898: Deo Ma/rt(i) c(o)h/ortis / pri(mae) [A]e/l(iae) Dac(orum) V / P V / CVI tri[b(unus)] (‘For the god Mars the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians… tribune’). Altar found at Birdoswald before 1624. Source: RIB I pp.585-6

RIB 1899: Deo Marti / et Victor/[ia]e Aurel(ius) / Maximu[s] / s(acrum) s(umptu) s(uo) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the god Mars and Victoria Aurelius Maximus, a sacred offering at his expense, willingly and deservedly fulfilling a vow’). Altar found before 1763 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.586

RIB 1900: Deo Ma/rti Au[g(usto)] / [… (‘For the God Mars Augustus…’). Altar found before 1750, probably at Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I pp.586-7

RIB 1901: [Mar]ti Pat[ri] / [… (‘For Mars Pater…’). Fragment found 1952 W of Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.587

RIB 1902: Matr[ib]/us / PRNV[…] / VVSCO [v(otum) s(olvit)] / l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the mothers… willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1732, probably at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.587

RIB 1903: D(e)ae / Rati / votu/m in / perp/etuo (‘For the goddess Ratis, a perpetual vow’). Altar found before 1873 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.587

RIB 1904: Signis / et n(umini) Au[g(usti) coh(ors) I] / Ael(ia) [Dacorum (‘For the standards and the deity of the Emperor, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians…’). Statue base found before 1728 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.587

RIB 1905

RIB 1905

RIB 1905: Deo Sancto / Silvano ve/natores / Banniess(es) (‘For the holy god Silvanus, the hunters of Banna (set this up)’). Altar found 1821 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.588

RIB 1906: …]/to […] / coh(ors) I [Dac(orum)] / qu[i]b(us) pra[e]/est Amm(onius) / Victorin(us) / trib(unus) (‘… the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians which is commanded by the tribune Ammonius Victorinus’). Base found before 1624 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.588

RIB 1907: …] / V C[…] / L(ucius) Vereius / Fortuna/tus |(centurio) leg(ionis) / V[I …] (‘… Lucius Vereius Fortunatus, centurion of the Sixth Legion…’). Altar found before 1624 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.589

RIB 1908: …] / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘…willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1732. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.589

RIB 1909: Impp(eratoribus) Caess(aribus) L(ucio) / Sept(imio) Severo Pio / Pert(inaci) et M(arco) Aur(elio) A[nt]o/nino Augg(ustis) [[[et P(ublio) Sep(timio)]]] / [[[Getae nob(ilissimo) Caes(ari)]]] hor/reum fecer(unt) coh(ortes) I Ael(ia) / Dac(orum) et I T(h)racum c(ivium) R(omanorum) sub / Alfeno Senecione co(n)s(ulari) / per Aurel(ium) Iulianum tr(ibunum) (‘For the Emperor Caesars Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Augusti, and Publius Septimius Geta, most noble Caesar, the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians and the First Cohort of Thracians, Roman citizens, built the granary under Alfenus Senecio through the tribune Aurelius Iulianus’). Dedication slab found 1929 in a barrack block. Source: RIB I p.589

RIB 1910: [Impp(eratoribus) Caess(aribus) L(ucio)] / [Septimio Sev]ero / [Pio Pertina]ci et / [M(arco) Aurel(io) Antonino] / [Pio Augg(ustis)] / [… (‘For the Emperor Caesars Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, Augusti…’). Dedication slab found at Birdoswald before 1899. Source: RIB I p.589

RIB 1911: Pro salute / d(omini) n(ostri) Maximi ac / fort(issimi) Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) / M(arci) Aurel(i) [Anton(ini)] / [P(ii) F(elicis)] Aug(usti) […]OC / […]V[…]VST / […]O aedif(icavit) (‘For the well-being of our greatest and mightiest Lord the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus … built…’). Altar found before 1600 at Willowford. Source: RIB I p.590

RIB 1912: [DD(ominis)] nn(ostris) Dioc[letiano] et / M[axim]iano Invictis Augg(ustis) et / Constantio et Maximiano / nn(obilissimis) CC(aesaribus) sub v(iro) p(erfectissimo) Aur(elio) (H)arpagio pr(aeside) / praetor(ium) quod erat humo copert(um) / et in labe(m) conl(apsum) et princ(ipia) et bal(neum) rest(ituit) / curant(e) Fl(avio) Martino cent(urione) p(rae)p(osito) c(ohortis?) […] (‘For our Lords Diocletian and Maximian, Invincible Augusti, and Constantius and Maximianus, most noble Caesars, under the Most Perfect Aurelius Harpagius, governor, the … Cohort restored the commanding officer’s house, which had been covered with soil and collapsed in ruins, along with the headquarters building and bath-house, under the command of Flavius Martinus, centurion in charge’). Dedication slab found in 1929 in a barrack building. Source: RIB I p.591

RIB 1913: [Im]p(eratori?) C[aes(ari?) …] / […]V[… (‘For the Emperor Caesar…’). Fragment of dedication slab found before 1887 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.591

RIB 1914

RIB 1914

RIB 1914: Sub Modio Iu/lio leg(ato) Aug(usti) pr(o) / pr(aetore) coh(ors) I Ael(ia) D(a)c(orum) / cui praeest M(arcus) / Cl(audius) Menander / trib(unus) (‘Under the governor Modius Iulius, The First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, commanded by the tribune Marcus Claudius Menander (built this)’). Dedication slab found outside the wall of S guard chamber of the E gate at Birdoswald in 1852. Source: RIB I p.591

RIB 1915: …s]ub cur[a …] / […]ei |(centurionum) Max[…] / [… Sace]rdo[…] / […]MPD[… (‘in the charge of… centurions…’). Fragment of dedication slab found in 1860 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.592

RIB 1916: Leg(io) VI / Vic(trix) P(ia) F(idelis) / f(ecit) (‘The Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Building stone found in 1599, probably at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.592

RIB 1917: c(enturia) Congaoni / Candidi p(edes) XXX (‘the century of Congaonius Candidus (built) 30 feet’). Building stone found before 1873 at or near Birdoswald. Source: RIB I pp.592-3

RIB 1918: c(enturia) Deci Sax(ae) / coh(ortis) I Dac(orum) (‘the century of Decius Saxa of the First Cohort of Dacians (built this)’). Building stone found before 1899 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.593

RIB 1919: D(is) M(anibus) / Aureli / Concor/di vixit / ann(um) un/um d(ies) V / fil(ii) Aurel(i) / Iuliani / trib(uni) (‘For the immortal shades of Aurelius Concordus, he lived one year, 5 days, son of the tribune Aurelius Iulianus’). Tombstone found in 1783 in the milking house at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.593

RIB 1920: D(is) [M(anibus)] / Deciba[l… vix(it)] / dieb[us …] / et Blae[… vix]/{s}[i]t a(nnos) X Et[…]/us frat[er (‘For the immortal shades, for Decibalus, who lived … days, and Blaesus, who lived 10 years… their brother (set this up)’). Tombstone found 1752 a little W of Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.593

RIB 1921: …]spa Septimo vi[xi]t ann(os) / XXXX mil(itavit) XVIII coh(orte) I Ae/lia Dacorum / h(eres) f(aciendum) c(uravit) (‘…spa Septimus, lived 40 years, served 18, with the First Aelian Cohort of Dacians, his heir set this up’). Tombstone fragment found 1802 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I pp.593-4

RIB 1922: …]CM[…] / […]IMVS DI[…] / […]ES a solo fe[…] / [Maximino] et Africano c[o(n)s(ulibus)] (‘…built from ground level… in the consulship of Maximinus and Africanus’). Dedication slab fragment found before 1856 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.594

RIB 1923: […]NI[…] / TORTO[…] / TOA[…] / DA[…] (‘?’). Altar fragment found before 1732 in a door jamb at Underheugh. Source: RIB I p.594

RIB 1924: …]A[I …] / […]OQV[…] / […]OCLI[… (‘?’). Fragment found before 1884 at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.594

RIB 1925: …]VI R[…] / […]AL M[…] / […]ET[… (‘?’). Fragment found before 1874 at Birdoswald. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.595

RIB 1926: …]IBVS[… (‘?’). Fragment found loose in 1929 in barrack block. Source: RIB I p.595

RIB 1927: Dada (‘Dada’). Building stone found before 1732 in NE building at Birdoswald farm. Source: RIB I p.595

RIB 1928: ? (‘?’). Weathered altar found 1783 in milk-house at Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.595

RIB 1929: ? (‘?’). Altar found 1783 built into a fireplace at Underheugh Farm. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.595

Analysis

The altars set up to Jupiter Best and Greatest (1874-84, 1886-96) preserve the names of some of the tribunes (and at least one legionary centurion) who commanded this double-strength infantry cohort based at the fort. However, it is a dedication (1909) which mentions Aurelius Iulianus, who we find elsewhere (1919) mourning the loss of his son Iulius Concordus, who lived one year and five days. Iulianus was in command when a granary was rebuilt in the Severan period and it is interesting to note that the Dacians got the help of the cohors I Thracum in the construction work. The Thracians were also involved in building work at around the same time down at Bowes (RIB 740). The occurrence of the Dacian name Decibalus (1920) is noteworthy, recalling that of the king who opposed Trajan’s invasion of Dacia at the beginning of the 2nd century AD.

One dedicatory slab in particular (1912) stands out, recording the reconstruction of the praetorium, principia, and baths under Arpagius some time in the period AD 297-305. The distinction it draws between the HQ building and CO’s house was to prove key in untangling the nomenclature of internal buildings in forts. In its own way just as significant is another stone (1914) which shows the Dacians’ traditional weapon, the lethal two-handed weapon known as the falx. The inscription is dated to AD 219 so it raises the question of whether the Dacians were in fact still equipped with the falx, a century after they arrived in Britain.

PLV Inscriptions (Carvoran to Birdoswald)

Introduction

This section includes civilian levy building stones which probably date to the Severan reconstruction of the Wall. Most of the material comes from consolidation of the curtain wall, so there is a large number of centurial stones, almost exclusively from the Twentieth Legion.

Inventory

RIB 1843: civitas / Dumn(on)i(orum) (‘the tribe of the Dumnonii (built this)’). Building stone found before 1761 near Carvoran. Source: RIB I p.570 http://mcbishop.co.uk/perlineamvalli/inscriptions/1843.jpg

RIB 1844: civitas / Dumnoni(orum) (‘the tribe of the Dumnonii (built this)’). Building stone found before 1828 near E of Thirlwell Castle, now in Holmhead farmhouse. Source: RIB I p.571 http://mcbishop.co.uk/perlineamvalli/inscriptions/1844.jpg

RIB 1845: coh(ortis) […] / Magni[… (‘(…,) Cohort (…the century of…) Magn(…) (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 near Thirlwell. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1846: c(enturia) Mun(ati) / Maxsu(mi) (‘the century of Munatius Maximus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 near Thirlwell Castle. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1847: c(enturia) Aeliani (‘the century of Aelianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1794 at Netherby but thought to come from this area. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1848: co[h]ors II / […]m / […] (‘Second Cohort, the century of (…)m(…) (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1698 at Glenwhelt. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1849: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) Libon[i]s (‘First Cohort, the century of Libo (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 at Greenfoot. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1850: …] / DVV[…] / STERV[…] / BERTO[… (‘?’). Fragment found before 1732 at Wall End farm house. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1851: coh(ortis) II / c(enturia) Laetia[ni] (‘Second Cohort, the century of Laetianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1884 at New Hall. Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1852: [Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) divi Traiani] / [fil(io) divi] Nervae ne[p(oti)] / [Trai]ano Hadria[no] / Aug(usto) / leg(io) XX V(aleria) v(ictrix) (‘For the Emperor Caesar, son of the divine Trajan, grandson of the divine Nerva, Trajan Hadrian Augustus, the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix (built this)’). Dedication found before 1850 in a stable at Chapel House. Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1853: c(enturia) Valeri / Veri (‘the century of Valerius Verus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 near Foultown (now Green Croft). Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1854: coh(ortis) VI / c(enturia) Caledo/ni Secund(i) (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Caledonius Secundus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1884 between Chapel House and Gap. Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1855: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Cl(audi) Augu[s(tani)] (‘ Third Cohort, the century of Claudius Augustanus (built this)’). Centurial inscription found before 1876 in the stable at Gap farm. Source: RIB I pp.572-3

RIB 1856: coh(ortis) I / c(enturia) Opsili (‘First Cohort, the century of Opsilius (built this)’). Centurial stone found in 1883 in Wall debris at Gilsland Vicarage. Source: RIB I p.573

RIB 1857: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) Libonis (‘First Cohort, the century of Libo (built this)’). Centurial stone found in 1896 in the brook E of Gilsland Vicarage. Source: RIB I p.573

RIB 1858: c(enturia) Vesui / Rufi (‘the century of Vesuius Rufus’). Centurial stone found 1903 near Gilsland railway station. Source: RIB I p.573

RIB 1859: coh(ortis) VI / c(enturia) Lousi / Suavis (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Lousius Suavis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1951 65yds E of Turret 48a. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1860: c(enturia) Coccei / Reguli (‘the century of Cocceius Regulus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1951 32ft E of Turret 48a. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1861: coh(ortis) VI / |(centuria) Lousi Su/avis (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Lousius Suavis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1927 260yds W of Turret 48a. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1862: c(enturia) Coccei / Reguli (‘the century of Cocceius Rugulus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1884 in a garden wall at Willowford Farm. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1863: E (‘?’). Large stone found before 1732 in Willowford farmhouse. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1864: c(enturia) I[…] (‘The century of I(…) (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 in Willowford farmhouse. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1865: c(enturia) I[…] (‘The century of I(…) (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 in Willowford farmhouse. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1866: ? (‘?’). Large stone found before 1732 in Willowford farmhouse. Now lost (inscription on its hidden face?!). Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1867: c(enturia) Ferron[i] / Vegeti / coh(ortis) III (‘the century of Ferronius Vegetus of the Third Cohort (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1940 16yds E of secondary tower at Willowford bridge abutment. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1868: c(enturia) Probi/ana (‘the former century of Probus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1939 between Harrow’s Scar and Milecastle 49. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1869: c(enturia) Cassi / Pris/ci / coh(ortis) VI (‘the century of Cassius Priscus of the Sixth Cohort (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 half a mile E of Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1870: [Deo sanc/to Si]l[v]an[o] / [F]lavius / Marcel/linus dec(urio) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the holy god Silvanus, Flavius Marcellinus, decurion, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1953 in Milecastle 49. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1871: [Dis] M(anibus) A / […]erenus / [vix(it) an]n(os) II me(nses) II d(ies) III (‘For the immortal shades, …lived 2 years, 2 months, 3 days’). Tombstone found 1953 in the threshold of the S gate of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB I p.576

RIB 3401: coh(ortis) VI c(enturia Lo/usi Suav/is (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Lousius Suavis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1980 at ‘Thirlwall View’, Greenhead. Source: RIB III p.369

RIB 3402: c(enturia) Coccei Reguli (‘the century of Cocceius Regulus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1974 in the former Globe Inn (‘Glenwhelt Coachouse’) at Greenhead. Source: RIB III p.370

RIB 3403: c(enturia) Iul(i) Ianal(is) (‘the century of Iulius Ianalis’). Centurial stone found 1976 at Holmhead guesthouse. Source: RIB III p.371

RIB 3404: c(o)ho(rtis) / III (‘Third Cohort’). Building stone found 1962 227m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.371

RIB 3405: co[h(ortis) V / [c(enturia) M]axi(mi) (‘Fifth Cohort, the century of Maximus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1966 227m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.372

RIB 3406: c(enturia) Reguli (‘the century of Regulus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1962 222m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.372

RIB 3407: c(o)ho(rtis) V / c(enturia) G(elli) P(h)ilippi (‘Fifth Cohort, the century of Gellius Philippus (built this)’). Centurial stone found in ploughing in 1986 150m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.373

RIB 3408: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) / Sereni (‘the century of primus pilus Serenus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1961 96m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.373

RIB 3409: c(enturia) Iuli Valeni (‘the century of Iulius Valerius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1966, probably somewhere between Turrets 48a and b (with ‘N’ thought to be an error for ‘R’). Source: RIB III p.374

RIB 3410: X (’10’). Building stone found 1987 in situ 150m E of turret at Willowford bridge abutment on S face. Source: RIB III p.374

RIB 3411: coh(ortis) II / c(enturia) Obc(…) Libo(nis) (‘Second Cohort, the century of Olc(…) Libo (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1963 121.7m E of Willowford Bridge turret. Source: RIB III p.375

RIB 3412: coh(ortis) I / c(enturia) Val(eri) Sabini (‘First Cohort, the century of Valerius Sabinus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1963 102.5m E of Willowford Bridge turret. Source: RIB III p.376

RIB 3413: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Socelli (‘Third Cohort, the century of Socellius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1963 59.5m E of turret at Willowford bridge abutment. Source: RIB III p.376

RIB 3414: Petta / c(enturia) Dida (‘Petta, the century of Dida’). Building stone found 1962 41.2m E of turret at Willowford bridge abutment. Source: RIB III p.377

RIB 3415: coh(ortis) VII / c(enturia) …ANIAN (‘Seventh Cohort, the century of ? (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1959 W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.378

RIB 3416: c(enturia) Pompei / Aemiliani p(edes) XXX (‘the century of Pompeius Aemilianus (built) 30 feet’). Centurial stone found 1958 W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.379

RIB 3417: c(enturia) Marci / Rufi (‘the century of Marcius Rufus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1958 W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.379

RIB 3418: c(enturia) Marc[i] / Rufi (‘the century of Marcius Rufus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1959 62.8m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.380

RIB 3419: c(enturia) Cari / Scipio(nis) (‘the century of Carius Scipio (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1959 67.7m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.380

RIB 3420: X (’10’). Building stone found 1959 123.5m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.381

RIB 3421: X (’10’). Building stone found on N face 1959 146.5m W of Milecastle 49 N gate. Source: RIB III p.381

RIB 3422: coh(ortis) VII / c(enturia) Atili Natalis Bas(s)i (‘Seventh Cohort, the century of Atilius Natalis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1958 157m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.381

RIB 3423: c(enturia) Ulp(i) Paulli (‘the century of Ulpius Paullus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 somewhere E of RIB 3424. Source: RIB III p.382

RIB 3424: coh(ortis) VIII / c(enturia) Fla(vi) Bas(s)i (‘Eighth Cohort, the century of Flavius Bassus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 217.5m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.382

RIB 3425: coh(ortis) VIII / c(enturia) Iuli Primi (‘Eighth Cohort, the century of Iulius Primus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 185.1m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.383

RIB 3426: c(enturia) Secund]i]ni / Verulli p(edes) XXX (‘the century of Secundinius Verullus (built) 30 feet’). Centurial stone found 1957 176.8m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.384

RIB 3427: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) (‘the century of the primus pilus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 154.9m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.384

RIB 3428: X (’10’). Building stone found 1987 293.5m W of N gate of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.385

RIB 3429: VII s(emis) (‘7½ (feet)’). Building stone found 1957 144.3m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.385

RIB 3430: coho(rtis) VI / c(enturia) Eppi Const(antis) (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Eppius Constans (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 135.4m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.386

RIB 3431: * (‘?’). Building stone found 1987 310m W of N gate of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.386

RIB 3432: X (’10’). Building stone found 1956 328m W of N gate of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.387

RIB 3433: c(o)ho(rtis) VI / c(enturia) F(a)eni / Alex(andri) (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Faenius Alexander (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1956 110.1m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.387

RIB 3434: c(enturia) Terti (‘the century of Tertius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1956 80.2m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.388

RIB 3435: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) (‘the century of the primus pilus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1956 76.25m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.388

RIB 3436: X (’10’). Building stone found 1987 374.5m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.389

RIB 3437: coh(ors) III (‘Third Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found 1956 26.8m E of NE corner of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.389

Analysis

This sector contains more than a mile of consolidated curtain wall, most of it done soon after the Second World War under the Ministry of Works charge hand Charlie Anderson. Although largely undertaken without archaeological supervision, records were nevertheless kept and the locations of inscriptions noted with some degree of accuracy. This proves useful for identifying the stints of individual centuries and cohorts, as has been covered in an earlier blog entry. The centurial inscriptions east of the River Irthing (18459, 185462, 18645, 186769, 34019, 341114) are thought to have belonged to the Twentieth Legion, as the Chapel House milecastle inscription (1852) seems to confirm. Replacement of the Turf Wall in stone west of the river is thought to have begun immediately the rampart was completed and before the Wall was abandoned for the move up to the Antonine Wall. The civilian levy stones (1843–4) are believed to belong to the Severan refurbishment of the Wall, the initial construction of the Wall under Hadrian being exclusively military.

An altar to Silvanus from Milecastle 49 (1870) once again probably reflects the army’s interest in hunting, but the tombstone of a child from the same place (1871) may come from one of the Birdoswald cemeteries, rather than from the milecastle itself.