PLV Inscriptions (High Rochester)

Introduction

These are the inscriptions from the outpost fort of High Rochester (Bremenium). The easternmost outpost fort, its occupation seems to have closely matched that of Hadrian’s Wall itself, some 34km to the south (along Dere Street).

Inventory

1262

RIB 1262

RIB 1262: Altar to the genius of the emperors and the standards, found in the strong-room of the fort at High Rochester in 1852. G(enio) d(omini) n(ostri) et / Signorum / coh(ortis) I Vardul[l(orum)] / et n(umeri) Explora/tor(um) Brem(eniensium) Gor(diani) / Egnat(ius) Lucili/anus leg(atus) Aug(usti) pr(o) pr(aetore) / curante Cassio / Sabiniano trib(uno) (‘For the genius of our Lord and of the standards of the First Cohort of Vardulli and of the Unit of Scouts of Bremenium, called “Gordian”, Egnatius Lucilianus, emperor’s propraetorian legate, (set this up) under the charge of the tribune Cassius Sabinianus’). Source: RIB I p.416.

1263

RIB 1263

RIB 1263: Altar to the genius of the emperors and the standards, found in the baths at High Rochester in 1773. Genio et Signis / coh(ortis) I F(idae) Vardul(lorum) / c(ivium) R(omanorum) eq(uitatae) (milliaria) / T(itus) Licinius Valeri/anus [t]rib(unus) (‘For the genius and the standards of the First Loyal Cohort of Vardulli, Roman citizens, part-mounted, one thousand strong, the tribune Titus Licinius Valerianus (set this up)’). Source: RIB I p.417.

1264

RIB 1264

RIB 1264: Altar for Hercules found inside the north-west angle of the fort at High Rochester around 1729. Deo / Hercu/lenti (‘For the god Hercules’). Source: RIB I p.417.

1265

RIB 1265

RIB 1265: Dedication to Matunus found on the medieval motte at Elsdon, 11.25 km. SE of High Rochester about 1715. Deo Matuno / pro salute / M(arci) [A]ur[eli ̣ ̣ ̣] / [ ̣ ̣ ̣] / bono generis / humani impe/rante G(aius) ⟦Iulius / Marcus⟧ leg(atus) / Aug(usti) pr(o) pr(aetore) posuit / ac dedicavit / c(uram) a(gente) Caecil(io) Optato trib(uno) (‘For the god Matunus, for the welfare of Marcus Aurelius …, reigning for the good of humanity, Gaius Julius Marcus, emperor’s propraetorian legate, set up and dedicated this, under the charge of the tribune Caecilius Optatus’). Source: RIB I p.417.

1266

RIB 1266

RIB 1266: Altar for Minerva found in a large building on the W side of the S gate of the fort before 1810. Deae Mi/nerv(a)e Iul(ius) / Carantus s(ingularis) c(onsularis) (‘For the goddess Minerva, Julius Carantus, singularis consularis, (set this up)’). Source: RIB I p.418.

1267

RIB 1267

RIB 1267: Altar for Minerva from High Rochester found before 1810. Deae sanctae / Minervae / Flavius Se/verinus / trib(unus) aram / dedit (‘For the holy goddess Minerva, the tribune Flavius Severinus gave this altar’). Source: RIB I p.418.

1268

RIB 1268

RIB 1268: Altar for Minerva from High Rochester found before 1810. Deae Mi/nervae et / Genio col/legi Caecil(ius) / Optatus trib(unus) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the goddess Minerva and to the Genius of the guild, the tribune Caecilius Optatus willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow’). Source: RIB I p.418.

1269

RIB 1269

RIB 1269: Altar for Moguntes set up by a decurion from High Rochester found before 1810. Dis / Mo(g)unti/bus Iul(ius) / Firmin/us dec(urio) f(ecit) (‘For the Moguntes gods, the decurion Julius Firminus made this’). Source: RIB I p.418.

1270

RIB 1270

RIB 1270: Altar for the goddess Roma found before 1602 at High Rochester. D(eae) R(omae) s(acrum) / dupl(icarii) n(umeri) Explor(atorum) / Bremen(iensium) aram / institverunt / n(atali) eius c(urante) Caep(ione) / Charitino trib(uno) / v(otum) s(olventes) l(ibentes) m(erito) (‘Sacred tp the goddess Roma, the duplicarii of the unit of Scouts of Bremenium set up this altar on her birthday, under the charge of the tribune Caepio Charitinus, willingly and deservedly fulfilling their vow’). Source: RIB I p.419.

1271

RIB 1271

RIB 1271: Altar for Silvanus Pantheus found near the NW angle of the fort at High Rochester in 1729. Silvano / [Pa]ntheo / [p]ro sa[lute] / [Ru]fin[i] trib(uni) et / [L]ucillae (uxoris) eius / Eutychus / lib(ertus) c(um) s(uis) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For Silvanus Pantheus, for the welfare of Rufinus, the tribune, and Lucilla, his (wife), Eutychus the freedman, with his dependants, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow’). Source: RIB I p.419.

1272

RIB 1272

RIB 1272: Dedication slab for Mithras found at High Rochester before 1730. Deo Invicto et Soli soc(io) / sacrum pro salute et / incolumitate imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) / M(arci) Aureli Antonini Pii Felic(is) / Aug(usti) L(ucius) Caecilius Optatus / trib(unus) coh(ortis) I Vardul(lorum) cum con[se]/craneis votum Deo [ ̣ ̣ ̣] / a solo extruct[um ̣ ̣ ̣] (‘Sacred to the invincible god, the Sun and companion, for the welfare and safety of the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus, Lucius Caecilius Optatus, tribune of the First Cohort of Vardulli, with his fellow-devotees [erected this building], vowed for the god, constructed from ground level’). Source: RIB I p.420.

1273

RIB 1273

RIB 1273: Altar for Victory and Peace found near Featherwood, on the line of Dere Street, about 5.6 km N of High Rochester fort in 1914. Victoriae / et Paci Iul(ius) / Melanio tr[i]b(unus) / [[i]mp(eratore) Volusiano]] et / Publicola co(n)s(ulibus) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For Victory and Peace, the tribune Julius Melanio, in the consulship of emperor Volusian and Publicola, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow’). Dated to AD 253. Source: RIB I p.420.

1274

RIB 1274

RIB 1274: Dedication slab found at High Rochester between 1852 and 1855. Dea[e ̣ ̣ ̣] /ne M[ ̣ ̣ ̣] / [ ̣ ̣ ̣] (‘For the goddess …’). Source: RIB I p.421.

1275

RIB 1275

RIB 1275: Altar base thought to have been found at High Rochester before 1888. […] / [p]ro se f(ecit) (‘… made it on his own behalf’). Source: RIB I p.422.

1276

RIB 1276

RIB 1276: Dedication slab found reused face down in the floor of a water-tank in front of the principia at High Rochester in 1852. Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) T(ito) Aelio / H[a]d(riano) Antonino Aug(usto) Pio p(atri) p(atriae) / sub Q(uinto) Lol(lio) Urbico / leg(ato) Aug(usti) pro prae(tore) / coh(ors) I Ling(onum) / eq(uitata) f(ecit) (‘For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, father of his country, under Quintus Lollius Urbicus, emperor’s propraetorian legate, the First Cohort of Lingones, part-mounted, built this’). Source: RIB I p.422.

1277

RIB 1277

RIB 1277: Dedication slab found at High Rochester before 1827. Dated to AD 205–7. Now lost. […] / [Perti]nac[i Arab(ico)] / [Adia]ḅ(enico) Par[thico Max(imo)] / [co(n)s(uli) III et] imp(eratori) [Caes(ari) M(arco) Aur(elio)] / [Anto]ṇino […] (‘For … Pertinax, conqueror of Arabia, conqueror of Adiabene, Most Great Conqueror of Parthia, consul three times, and for the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus …’). Source: RIB I p.422.

RIB 1278: Dedication slab found at High Rochester in 1852. Dated to AD 213. [Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) L(uci) Sept(imi) Severi Pii / Pertinacis Aug(usti) Arabici / Adiabenici Parth(ici) Max(imi) / fil(io) divi Antonini Sarm(atici) / nep(oti) divi Antonini Pii / pron(epoti)] di[vi Hadr(iani) abnep(oti)] / [divi] Tr[aiani Parth(ici)] / [et di]vi N[ervae adnep(oti)] / [M(arco)] Aure[lio Antonino] / [Pi]o Fel(ici) [Aug(usto) Parthico] / [M]axim[o Brit(annico) Maximo] / [p]ontif(ici) [maximo tr(ibunicia) pot(estate)] / [X]VI Imp(eratori) [II p(atri) p(atriae) proco(n)s(uli)] / [pr]o pie[tate et devotione] / [communi …] (‘For the Emperor Caesar, son of Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus, conqueror of Arabia, conqueror of Adiabene, Most Great Conqueror of Parthia, grandson of the deified Antoninus, conqueror of Sarmatia, great-grandson of the deified Antoninus Pius, great-great-grandson of the deified Hadrian, great-great-great-grandson of the deified Trajan, conqueror of Parthia, and great-great-great-great-grandson of the deified Nerva, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus, Most Great Conqueror of Parthia, Most Great Conqueror of Britain, pontifex maximus, in his sixteenth year of tribunician power, twice acclaimed imperator, father of his country, proconsul, from their joint duty and devotion …’). Source: RIB I p.422.

1279

RIB 1279

RIB 1279: Dedication slab used as a cover-slab ‘upon two supporters’ at High Rochester found before 1745. Dated to AD 216. Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) M(arco) Aurelio / Severo Antonino / Pio Felici Aug(usto) Parthic(o) / Max(imo) Brit(annico) Max(imo) Germ(anico) / Max(imo) pontifici maxim(o) / trib(unicia) potest(ate) XVIIII Imp(eratori) II / co(n)s(uli) IIII proco(n)s(uli) p(atri) p(atriae) coh(ors) I / Fida Vardul(lorum) c(ivium) R(omanorum) eq(uitata) (milliaria) Anto|niniana fecit sub cura ⟦[…]⟧ / ⟦[…]⟧ leg(ati) Aug(usti) pro p[r(aetore)] {‘For the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus, Most Great Conqueror of Parthia, Most Great Conqueror of Britain, Most Great Conqueror of Germany, pontifex maximus, in his nineteenth year of tribunician power, twice acclaimed imperator, four times consul, proconsul, father of his country, the First Loyal Cohort of Vardulli, Roman citizens, part-mounted, one thousand strong, Antoniniana, built this under the charge of …, emperor’s propraetorian legate’}. Source: RIB I p.422.

1280

RIB 1280

RIB 1280: Dedication slab recording construction of a ballistarium found in two pieces at High Rochester before 1810 and in 1855 (latter part now lost). Dated to AD 220. Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) M(arco) Au[r]elio / ⟦ Antonino⟧ Pio Fel(ici) Aug(usto) / trib(unicia) pot(estate) ⟦III⟧ co(n)s(uli) ⟦III⟧ p[roco(n)s(uli)] / p(atri) p(atriae) ballist(arium) a sol[o] coh(ors) I F(ida) / Vardul(lorum) ⟦A[nt(oniniana)]⟧ [s]ub cura / Tib(eri) Cl(audi) Paul[ini le]g(ati) Aug(usti) / pr(o) pr(aetore) fe[cit insta]ṇtẹ / P(ublio) Ael[io Erasino trib(uno)] (‘For the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus, holding tribunician power three times, in his third consulship, proconsul, father of his country, the First Loyal Cohort of Vardulli, called Antoniniana, built an artillery-platform from ground-level, under the charge of Tiberius Claudius Paulinus, emperor’s propraetorian legate, directed by the tribune Publius Aelius Erasinus’). Source: RIB I p.423.

1281

RIB 1281

RIB 1281: Dedication slab found in 1855 near the middle of High Rochester fort. Dated to AD 222–35. Imp(eratori) Cae[s(ari) M(arco) Aur(elio)] ⟦[Seve]/ro Alex[andr]o⟧ P(io) F̣(elici) [Aug(usto) ̣ ̣] / [ ̣ ̣ ̣] ⟦[matr(i)]⟧ / ⟦i[mp(eratoris) Caes(aris) et ca]s(trorum)⟧ coh(ors) I F(ida) Vard(ullorum) / ⟦(milliaria) S(everiana) A(lexandriana)⟧ ballis(tarium) a solo re[sti]t(uit) / sub c(ura) Cl(audi) Apellini le[g(ati)] Aug(ustorum) / instante Aur(elio) Quinto tr(ibuno) (‘For the Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Pius Felix Augustus … and for …, mother of the army, the First Loyal Cohort of Vardulli, one thousand strong, Severiana Alexandriana, restored from ground-level an artillery-platform under the charge of Claudius Apellinus, imperial legate, directed by the tribune Aurelius Quintus’). Source: RIB I p.423.

1282

RIB 1282

RIB 1282: Dedication slab found at High Rochester before 1847. Dated to AD 222–35. [matri… ̣] ⟦ [Alex]andr[i]⟧ [felicis] / [for]tissimi Aug(usti) [nos]/[tri] et castror(um) senat[usque] / [ ̣ ̣ ̣] (‘… mother of … Alexander, our fortunate and most valiant Augustus, and of the army and senate …’). Source: RIB I p.424.

1283

RIB 1283

RIB 1283: Building stone of legio VI Victrix found before 1810. vex(illatio) leg(ionis) / VI Vic(tricis) P(iae) F(idelis) / fecit (‘A detachment of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Source: RIB I p.424.

1284

RIB 1284

RIB 1284: Building stone of legio XX Valeria Victrix found near the E gate at High Rochester c.1776. vexillatio / leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / fecit (‘A detachment of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix built this’). Source: RIB I p.424.

1285

RIB 1285

RIB 1285: Building stone of cohors I Vardullorum found at High Rochester before 1810. coh(ors) I Va/rdullo/rum fecit (‘The First Cohort of Vardulli built this’). Source: RIB I p.425.

1286

RIB 1286

RIB 1286: Building stone recording the name of the tribune Aelius Erasinus. P(ublius) Ael(ius) Era/sinus trib(unus) (‘Publius Aelius Erasinus, tribune, (built this)’). Source: RIB I p.425.

1287

RIB 1287

RIB 1287: Centurial stone of Iulius S[…] found in the principia at High Rochester in 1856. (centuria) Iuli S(…) (‘The century of Julius S(…) (built this)’). Source: RIB I p.425.

1288

RIB 1288

RIB 1288: Tombstone found in 1809 whilst ploughing on the N side of the burn opposite the NE corner of High Rochester fort. [ ̣ ̣ ̣] S / [ ̣ ̣ ̣] / […] / [ ̣ ̣] coh(ortis) I Vardul(lorum) [ ̣ ̣ ̣] / [ ̣ ̣ ̣ praef(ecto)] coh(ortis) I Aug(ustae) / Lusitanor(um) item coh(ortis) I / Breucor(um) subcur(atori) viae / Flaminiae et aliment(orum) / subcur(atori) operum publ(icorum) / Iulia Lucilla c(larissima) f(emina) marito / b(ene) m(erenti) vix(it) an(nos) XLVIII / m(enses) VI d(ies) XXV (‘… for … of the First Cohort of Vardulli … prefect of the First Cohort Augusta of Lusitanians, also of the First Cohort of Breuci, sub-curator of the Flaminian Way and Doles, sub-curator of Public Works, Julia Lucilla, of senatorial rank, (set this up) to her well-deserving husband: he lived 48 years, 6 months, 25 days’). Source: RIB I p.425.

1289

RIB 1289

RIB 1289: Tombstone found in 1790 at High Rochester. D(is) M(anibus) [s(acrum)] / Aureli Ex[ ̣ ̣ ̣ ̣]/im[i] (centurio) coh(ortis) I Da[lm(atarum)(?)] (‘Sacred to the spirits of the deceased (and) of Aurelius Ex[….]imi, centurion of the First Cohort of Dalmatians (or Dacians)’). Source: RIB I p.426.

1290

RIB 1290

RIB 1290: Tombstone found in 1876 whilst ploughing near High Rochester. D(is) M(anibus) / Felicio(nis) liberti / vixit annis / XX (‘To the spirits of the deceased (and) of Felicio, freedman, (who) lived 20 years’). Source: RIB I p.426.

1291

RIB 1291

RIB 1291: Tombstone of a tribune’s foster-child found in the NW quarter of High Rochester fort in 1729. D(is) M(anibus) / Hermagor/a alumno / Hono/ratus / trib(unus) (‘To the spirits of the deceased (and) to his foster-child Hermagoras, the tribune Honoratus (set this up)’). Source: RIB I p.426.

RIB 1292: Tombstone of a legionary found near High Rochester before 1702. Now lost. D(is) M(anibus) / G(aius) Iul(ius) [G(ai) f(ilius)] (colonia) Fl(avia) / Ingen/[uus ̣ ̣ ̣] / mi[l(es)] leg(ionis) / VI V(ictricis) [P(iae)] F(idelis) (‘To the spirits of the deceased (and) of Gaius Julius Ingenuus, son of Gaius, of (colonia) Flavia […], soldier of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis’). Source: RIB I p.427.

1293

RIB 1293

RIB 1293: Tombstone found at High Rochester before 1810. D(is) M(anibus) / Ro[…] / M[…] / vixit [ann(os)] / XXXVIII (‘To the spirits of the deceased … lived 38 [years]’). Source: RIB I p.427.

1294

RIB 1294

RIB 1294: Figural tombstone from an unknown provenance found before 1842. D(is) M(anibus) / […] / […]ci […]it / […] ann(is) XXV (‘To the spirits of the deceased … 25 years’). Source: RIB I p.427.

RIB 1295: Dedication slab fragment found at High Rochester in 1852. […] / F[…] / SE[…] / PAT[…] (?). Source: RIB I p.428.

RIB 1296: Inscribed stone found at High Rochester in 1760. Now lost. […]VOTA DECMA[…] / […] T […] Susceptae […] / [… dul(?)]cissimae VC / […] M […] (‘… Suscepta … very sweet …’). Source: RIB I p.428.

1297

RIB 1297

RIB 1297: Building stone of legio II Augusta, possibly from High Rochester, found before 1901. leg(io) II Augus(ta) / fe[c(it) …] (‘The Second Legion Augusta built (this)’). Source: RIB I p.428.

RIB 3491: Building stone of vexillations of cohortes IIII Gallorum & II Nerviorum found at High Rochester in 1982. vex(illatio) coh(ortis) IIII Gall(orum) eṭ / vex(illatio) c[o]h(ortis) II Nerv(iorum) / fecerunt (‘A detachment of the Fourth Cohort of Gauls and a detachment of the Second Cohort of Nervii made (this)’). Source: RIB I p.434.

RIB 3492: Tombstone found at High Rochester at 1998. D(is) [M(anibus)] / Te[…] / […] (‘To the shades of the deceased. Te[…] …’). Source: RIB I p.435.

Analysis

The units based at High Rochester were clearly suited for the job: a mixed cohort (cohors I Fida Vardullorum), which included a cavalry component, and a unit of irregular scouts (the numerus exploratum). Building work can be identified by legionaries (legiones II Augusta, VI Victrix, and XX Valeria Victrix are all represented) as well as auxiliaries (cohortes IIII Gallorum and II Nerviorum). The site is also notable for the tombstone of a unit commander who died in post.

Building inscriptions show major reconstruction work during the 3rd century AD, under Severus, Caracalla, and Severus Alexander.

Religious dedications include Hercules, Matunus, Minerva, Mithras, Moguntes, Roma, Silvanus Pantheus, Victory & Peace amongst the deities. The last of these comes from slightly to the north of the fort and, dating to AD 252, may mark the site of conflict.

PLV Inscriptions (Carvoran)

Introduction

This section includes inscriptions from the fort at Carvoran. Although built as part of the Stanegate road system, it was ultimately listed as one of the sites per lineam valli by the time the Notitia Dignitatum was drawn up.

Inventory

RIB 1775: Altar dedicated to Baliticaurus found 1885/6 N of Carvoran. Deo / Balit/icau/ro v/otu(m) (For the god Baliticaurus an offering). Source RIB I p.554.

RIB 1776: Altar dedicated to Blatucadrus found in or before 1844 at Carvoran. D(e)o Blatu/cadro / votu(m) s(olutum) (For the god Blatucadrus the vow was fulfilled). Source RIB I p.554.

RIB 1777: Altar dedicated to Epona found before 1840 at Carvoran. Deae / Epon/ae P(…) So(…) (For the goddess Epona P(…) So(…) (set this up)). Source RIB I p.554.

RIB 1778: Altar to the Emperor’s Fortune found 1831 in the bath-house inside the SW angle of the fort at Carvoran. Fortunae Aug(ustae) / pro salute L(uci) Aeli / Caesaris ex visu / T(itus) Fla(vius) Secundus / praef(ectus) coh(ortis) I Ham/iorum Sagittar(iorum) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the Fortune of the Emperor, for the welfare of Lucius Aelius Caesar Titus Flavius Secundus, prefect of the First Cohort of Hamian Archers, due to a vision willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.555.

RIB 1779: Altar to Fortune found before 1716 at Carvoran. Fortun[ae] / Audac(ilius) Ro|manus 𐆛 / leg(ionum) VI XX / (II) Aug(ustae) (For Fortuna, Audacilius Romanus, centurion of the Sixth, Twentieth, and (Second) Augusta Legions, (set this up).). Source RIB I p.555.

RIB 1780: Altar to Hammia found before 1751 at Carvoran. De(a)e Ha/mmi(ae) / Sabi(nus) / f(ecit) (For the goddess Hammia, Sabinus made this). Source RIB I p.555.

RIB 1781: Dedication for Hercules found before 1599. Now lost. D(e)o / (H)erc(u)l[i] / [ ̣ ̣ ̣] (For the god Hercules …). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1782: Altar dedicated for Jupiter Optimus Maximus of Doliche. Now lost. I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) D(olicheno) / [ ̣ ̣] H [ ̣ ̣ ̣] (For Jupiter, Best and Greatest, of Doliche …). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1783: Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus found at Carvoran before 1852. I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / Helio/polit(ano) / Iul(ius) Po/llio [ ̣ ̣ ̣] (For Jupiter Heliopolitanus, Best and Greatest, Julius Pollio (?) … [set this up]). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1784: Altar for Mars Belatucairus found before 1873 at Carvoran. D(e)o Marti / Belatu/cairo (For the god Mars Belatucairus). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1785: Altar dedicated for Mother Goddesses found around 1729 at Carvoran. Matrib[us] / [..]ntius [..] (For the Mother Goddesses …). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1786: Fragmentary dedication for M… and the Divinities of the Emperors found by Brand in 1779 at Carvoran. Deo M[…]- / et Numinibu[s Aug(ustorum)] / Iul(ius) Pacatus e[t ̣ ̣ ̣] / et Pacutius C[…]- / et V [ ̣ ̣] VAL […] / ccus a solo […fec]/er(unt) v(otum) s(olventes) [l(ibentes) m(erito)] (For the god M… and to the Divinities of the Emperors Julius Pacatus and … and Pacutius C[… and … built this building from ground-level, willingly and deservedly fulfilling their vow). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1787: Fragmentary dedication found at Carvoran before 1716. Now lost. D(e-) M(…) (For the deity M(…)). Source RIB I p.557.

RIB 1788: Inscription for Minerva found at Carvoran in 1867. [… Mi]ner[vae …] | […]ia Ae[…] (… for Minerva …). Source RIB I p.557.

RIB 1789: Altar dedicated to the Nymphs found at Carvoran before 1696. Deabus Nym/phis Vetti[a] / Mansueta e[t] / Claudia Turị[a]/ nilla fil(ia) v(otum) s(olverunt) l(ibentes) [m(erito)] (For the Goddesses, the Nymphs, Vettia Mansueta and Claudia Turianilla, her daughter, willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow). Source RIB I p.557.

RIB 1790: Altar for Silvanus found at Woodhead, 800m SE of Carvoran in 1760. Now lost. Silvano / Vellaeụṣ / […] (For Silvanus Vellaeus). Source RIB I p.558.

RIB 1791: Poem in iambic senarii dedicated to Virgo Caelestis found in the NE of Carvoran. Imminet Leoni Virgo caeles/ti situ spicifera iusti in/ventrix urbium conditrix / ex quis muneribus nosse con/tigit deos: ergo eadem mater divum / Pax Virtus Ceres dea Syria / lance vitam et iura pensitans. / in caelo visum Syria sidus edi/dit Libyae colendum: inde / cuncti didicimus. / ita intellexit numine inductus / tuo Marcus Caecilius Do/natianus militans tribunus / in praefecto dono principis (The Virgin in her place in the heavens rides upon the Lion; bearer of corn, inventor of law, founder of cities, by whose gifts it is the good lot of men to know the gods: she is therefore the Mother of the gods, Peace, Virtue, Ceres, the Syrian Goddess, weighing life and laws in her balance. Syria has sent the constellation seen in the heavens to Libya to be worshipped: thence have we all learned. Marcus Caecilius Donatianus, serving as tribune in the post of prefect by the Emperor’s gift, led by thy godhead, has understood this). Source RIB I p.558.

RIB 1792: Altar for the Syrian Goddess found at Carvoran in or before 1599. Deae Suri/ae sub Calp/urnio Ag[r]/ico[la] leg(ato) Au[g(usti)] / pr(o) pr(aetore) Lic[in]ius / [C]lem[ens praef(ectus)] / [co]h(ortis) I Ha[miorum] (For the Syrian Goddess, under Calpurnius Agricola, propraetorian legate of the emperor, Licinius Clemens, prefect of the First Cohort of Hamians, (set this up)). Source RIB I p.559.

RIB 1793: Altar for Veteris found before 1848 at Carvoran. Deo Vete/ri Nec/alame[s] / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the god Veteris Necalames willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.559.

RIB 1794: Altar for Veteris found before 1840 at Carvoran. Deo Ve/teri Ne/calam/es v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) (For the god Veteris Necalames willingly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.559.

RIB 1795: Altar for Veteris found in or before 1757 near Thirlwell Castle during construction of the Military Road. Deo sanct[o] / Veteri / Iul(ius) Pastor / imag(inifer) coh(ortis) II / Delmạ(tarum) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the holy god Veteris Julius Pastor, imaginifer of the Second Cohort of Dalmatians, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.560.

RIB 1796: Altar for Vetiris found before 1757 at Carvoran. Deo Ve/tiri san/cto An/diatis / v(oto) s(oluto) l(ibens) m(erito) f(ecit) (For the holy god Vetiris, Andiatis on fulfilment of the vow willingly and deservedly set this up). Source RIB I p.560.

RIB 1797: Altar for Vetiris found before 1757 at Carvoran. Deo / Vetiri v(otum) (For the god Veteris, a vow). Source RIB I p.560.

RIB 1798: Altar dedicated to Viteris found before 1769 at Carvoran. Deo Vite/ri No[ ̣ ̣ ̣] (For the god Viteris…). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1799: Altar for Vitiris found at Carvoran before 1732. Deo / Vitiri / Meni(us) / Dada / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the god Vitiris Menius Dada willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1800: Altar for Vitiris found at Carvoran before 1873. Deo Vitiri / Milus et / Aurides / v(otum) s(olverunt) ❦ l(ibentes) m(erito) (For the god Vitiris Milus and Aurides willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1801: Altar for Vitiris found at Carvoran before 1599. Deo / Viti/ri Ne[c]|[a]limes / […]RO v(otum) / p(osuit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the god Vitiris Necalimes … willingly and deservedly set up his vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1802: Dedication for the Veteres found before 1716 at Carvoran. Vete/ribus […] (For the Veteres …). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1803: Altar for the Veteres found at Carvoran before 1892. Dibus / Veter/ibus / vot(u)m (For the gods the Veteres a vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1804: Altar for the Viteres found built into the farm house at Carvoran in 1896. Dibus Vit/[eribus] IVIX / A v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the gods the Viteres … willingly and deservedly fulfilled the vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1805: Altar for the Vitires found at Carvoran in 1725. Dibus / Vitiribus / Deccius / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the gods the Vitires Deccius willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1806: Pedestal with a dedication for an unnamed god found at Carvoran before 1857. Deo ar/milum / Binius / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the god Binius (gave) this bracelet, willingly and deservedly fulfilling his vow). Source RIB I p.562.

RIB 1807: Fragmentary dedication found at Carvoran before 1902. […] / [… e]x vo[to] / [po]sueru[nt] / l(ibentes) m(erito) (… willingly and deservedly …). Source RIB I p.562.

RIB 1808: Fragmentary dedication found built into a field wall at Carvoran around 1930. Now lost. [Imp(eratori) Caesa]ri Tr[aiano] / [Hadri]ano [Aug(usto)] / […] (To the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus …). Source RIB I p.562.

RIB 1809: Altar set up by the Hamian archers’ commander, Licinius Clemens, found at Carvoran before 1845. [… sub Calpur]/[ni]o Agri/cola co(n)s(ulari) / Licinius Cl[e]/mens p[raef(ectus)] (… under Calpurnius Agricola, of consular rank, Licinius Clemens, the prefect [set this up). Source RIB I p.562.

RIB 1810: Fragmentary inscription of cohors I Hamiorum found before 1840 at Carvoran. […]ius Agripp[a …] / [… coh(ortis) I] Hamioru[m …] (… Agrippa … of the First Cohort of Hamians …). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1811: Centurial stone of Claudius Augustanus found at or near Carvoran around 1755. coh(ortis) III 𐆛 Cl(audi) Aug/ustani (The century of Claudius Augustanus from the third cohort (built this)). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1812: Centurial stone of Flavius Noricus found near Carvoran before 1834. coh(ortis) X 𐆛 F(lavi) / Norici (The century of Flavius Noricus from the tenth cohort (built this)). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1813: Centurial stone of Claudius found in a farm building at Carvoran before 1767. 𐆛 Claudi / p(edes) XXX se(mis) (The century of Claudius (built) 30½ feet). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1814: Centurial stone of Felix found at Carvoran in 1867. 𐆛 Felicis / p(edes) XX f(ecit) (The century of Felix built 20 feet). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1815: Centurial stone of the Hortensian century found before 1833 at Carvoran. Now lost. 𐆛 H[ort(?)]e/ns[ia(?)]n[a(?)] (The Hortensian century (built this)). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1816: Centurial stone of Julius Ca[… found at Carvoran before 1833. 𐆛 Iul(i) Ca[…] / valla[vit] / p(edes) C[…] (The century of Julius Ca[… built 100 (and more) feet of rampart). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1817: Building inscription of Antonius Viator found at Carvoran before 1753. 𐆛 Mar[tialis] / Anto[nius] / Viato[r ex] / G(ermania) S(uperiore) f(ecit) (From the century of Martialis, Antonius Viator from Upper Germany built this). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1818: Centurial stone of Prim[… found at Blenkinsopp Castle in 1825. 𐆛 Primi[…] / v[alla]vit / p(edes) CX[II(?)] / sub Fl(avio) Secundo / pr(a)ef(ecto) (The century of Prim[… built 112 (?) feet of rampart under the command of the prefect Flavius Secundus). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1819: Centurial stone of Sentius Priscus found at Carvoran before 1818. 𐆛 Sen[ti] / Prisc[i] (The century of Sentius Priscus (built this)). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1820: Centurial stone of Silvanus found in 1940 c.90m E of Carvoran fort. 𐆛 Silvani / vallavit / p(edes) CXII sub / Fla(vio) Secundo / [pr]aef(ecto) (The century of Silvanus built 112 feet of rampart under the command of Flavius Secundus, the prefect). Source RIB I p.565.

RIB 1821: Centurial stone of Sorio found before 1807 at Carvoran. 𐆛 Sorioni(s) (The century of Sorio (built this)). Source RIB I p.565.

RIB 1822: Centurial stone of Valerius Cassianus found before 1775 at Carvoran. 𐆛 Valeri / Cassia/[ni] p(er) v(allum) p(edes) XIX (The century of Valerius Cassianus (built) along the fort-rampart 19 feet). Source RIB I p.565.

RIB 1823: Building inscription of the First Cohort of Batavians found before 1774 at Carvoran. coh(ors) I Bata/vorum f(ecit) (The First Cohort of Batavians built this). Source RIB I p.566.

RIB 1824: Building inscription of the First Cohort of Batavians found before 1758 at Carvoran. Now lost. coh(ors) Ba[ta]vorum (Cohort of Batavians). Source RIB I p.566.

RIB 1825: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1775. Now lost. […] Aug(ust-) […] / numeri […] / Magn{c}e(n)s(ium) […] / LE[…] (of the unit … of Magn[…] …). Source RIB I p.566.

RIB 1826: Funerary inscription for Gaius Valerius Tullus found before 1840 at Carvoran. G(aius) Valerius G(ai) (filius) Vol(tinia) (tribu) / Iullus Vian(na) mil(es) / leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) (Gaius Valerius Iullus, son of Gaius of the Voltinian voting-tribe, from Vienne, soldier of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix). Source RIB I p.567.

RIB 1827: Fragmentary funerary inscription found at Carvoran before 1774. Now lost. Ael(iae) S[…] | Aurel[…] | Marti[…] (For Aelia S[… Aur … Marti … (set this up)). Source RIB I p.567.

RIB 1828: Funerary inscription for Aurelia Aia found at Blenkinsopp Castle in 1825. D(is) M(anibus) / Aur(eliae) T(iti) f(iliae) Aiae / d(omo) Salonas / Aur(elius) Marcus / 𐆛 Obseq(uentis) con/iugi sanctis/simae quae vi/xit annis XXXIII / sine ulla macula (For the spirits of the departed; and to Aurelia Aia, daughter of Titus, from Salonae, Aurelius Marcus of the century of Obsequens (set this up) to his very pure wife, who lived 33 years without any blemish). Source RIB I p.567.

RIB 1829: Funerary inscription for Aurelia found at Carvoran before 1732. D(is) M(anibus) Aur(elia) […] VBE / OVC […] MA vix[it] / ann(os) […] Aur(elia) Pu[sin]/na so[rori] pien[tis]/sime et [des]id[eratis]/sime […] (For the spirits of the departed: Aurelia … lived … years; Aurelia Pusinna [set this up] to her most devoted and very much missed sister). Source RIB I p.567.

RIB 1830: Funerary inscription for Lifana found at Blenkinsopp Castle in 1880. D(is) M(anibus) / Lifana B[…]/ci filia v[ix]|it ann(os) […] / L(ucius) Seno[va]/lus av[un]culus [fe]|cit ❦ (To the spirits of the departed: Lifana, daughter of … lived … years; Lucius Senovalus, her uncle, made this). Source RIB I p.568.

RIB 1831: Fragmentary funerary inscription found before 1757 at Carvoran. […] / [an(norum) .] XXI / Aurel(ia) […] / mater f[il(iae) ca]rissime p[os(uit)] (… aged 21 [possible 31 or 41] Aurelia …, her mother, set this up to her most beloved daughter). Source RIB I p.568.

RIB 1832: Fragmentary funerary inscription found at Carvoran in 1938. [… con]iug(i) pi[issimae] / […] iona[e …] / […]s Sen[…] (… to …, his most devoted wife, [and to …]iona […]s Sen[… set this up]). Source RIB I p.568.

RIB 1833: Fragmentary funerary inscription found at Carvoran before 1832. […]provid[…] / [… I]anuari[…] / [… S]ecunda SA[…] (… Secunda …). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1834: Fragmentary funerary inscription found at Carvoran in 1929 whilst ploughing. […] IIA / […]sius et / [… f]ratres (… and … brothers …). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1835: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1811. Now lost. […]GERMA R[…] / […] AC NE[…] (?). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1836: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1834. Now lost. […]M ACVCIEA […] (?). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1837: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran in 1880. Now lost. […] / [p]ṛo [se et] / suis l(ibens) [m(erito)] (… willingly and deservedly for himself and his family). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1838: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1758. […] ORIP […] (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 1839: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1758. […]RI[ ̣]TE[…] (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 1840: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran in 1880. […]ID L / […] VSPA / […]F (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 1841: Fragmentary building inscription found at Carvoran before 1902. […] / LVI […] (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 1842: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1902. […] / [.] MIS (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 3392: Fragmentary altar found at Carvoran in 1971. [de]o ❦ / […] (For the god …). Source RIB III p.362.

RIB 3393: Fragmentary altar found at Carvoran Farm in 1987. […]/enus s(acrum) f[ec](it) (… […]enus consecrated (this)). Source RIB III p.363.

RIB 3394: Building stone of legio II Augusta found at Carvoran Farm in 1988. leg(io) / II | Augu[sta] / …. / L[…] (legio II Augusta …). Source RIB III p.364.

RIB 3395: Building stone of legio II Augusta found in a field wall at Carvoran in 1985. […] / [… l]eg(ionis) II (Augustae) (… of legio II Augusta). Source RIB III p.365.

RIB 3396: Inscribed building stone found in a field wall at Carvoran in 1983. […]X II (… twelve (or more)). Source RIB III p.365.

RIB 3397: Inscribed stone slab found in a field wall at Carvoran in 1978. XVIII (eighteen). Source RIB III p.366.

RIB 3398: Tombstone for Mamma found in ploughing at Carvoran in 1964. D(is) M(anibus) Mamma / Vict(oris) • f(ilia) • Baib(ius) • D/u(v)ianus coniu/gi sanctissim(ae) / quae vixit an(nos) • XXII/II (For the shades of the dead. Mamma, daughter of Victor. Baibius Duvianus to his most saintly wife who lived 24 years). Source RIB III p.366.

RIB 3399: Fragmentary tombstone found in a field wall at Carvoran in the 1980s. AM[…] / […] (?). Source RIB III p.368.

RIB 3400: Fragmentary tombstone found in a field wall at Carvoran in 1982/3. […] / […]s VI • (… six). Source RIB III p.368.

Analysis

Although Carvoran was part of the Stanegate system of forts, it was the best placed to lend direct support to Hadrian’s Wall, which was presuambly why it came to be incoportaed within the Wall system.

Dedications from the site include Belatucadrus, a regional deity from the north-west of Roman Britain. The Veteres are represented in force, as is the case at many sites along the frontier. Epona, a Celtic horse goddess is present, as are Hammia and Suria, the first a regional personification reflecting the rigins of the eastern archers based there, and the latter a provincial goddess freqeuntly equated with Julia Domna, the wife of Septimius Severus, who came from Emesa. Note that the transcription of Suria reflects the pronunciation of ‘Syria’ in the Roman period (as now, in Arabic). Finally, Hercules and Jupiter, both Dolichenus and Helipolitanus, make an appearance.

The Hamian archers were the principal garrison unit at the site, but the cohortes I Batavorum and II Delmatarum were also recorded, as was a legionary centurion (although it is unclear under what circumstances: with a legionary detachment or commanding auxiliary troops?). The building stones mentioning legio II Augusta probably reflect the construction of the stone fort which, as at Vindolanda, was much smaller than the earlier, underlying turf-and-timber fort (the extent of which is probably indicated by a deviation in the course of the Vallum). The tombstone of G. Valerius Tullus, a soldier of legio XX (RIB 1826), may date back to the construction or even garrisoning of this early Stanegate fort (his name is given in the nominative case typical of the 1st century AD). The centurial stones mentioning a length of construction probably also relate to the building of the later fort, since it was not normal practice to record this on the Hadrian’s Wall curtain wall. The dedication to Hadrian (RIB 1808) is thought unlikely to come from the nearby Milecastle 46 (the text differs from the regular milecastle inscriptions and has an elaborate border) so may belong to the gateway of the later stone fort (thus providing a Hadrianic date for that, along with RIB 1820, since Flavius Secundus commanded I Hamiorum in AD 136–8).

Finally, the Aurelia/us names from civilian inscriptions suggest the continued occupation of the fort vicus into the 3rd century.

PLV Inscriptions (Carrawburgh to Housesteads)

Introduction

This section of Hadrians’s Wall sees the transition to the crags along the Whin Sill. As might be expected, the inscriptions here are dominated by centurial building stones.

Inventory

1564

RIB 1564

RIB 1564: c(enturia) Avidi (the century of Avidius (built this)). Centurial stone found before 1873 just west of Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.498

1565

RIB 1565

RIB 1565: c(enturia) Avidi (century of Avidius (built this)). Centurial stone found before 1873 between Carrawburgh and Housesteads. Source: RIB I p.498

1566

RIB 1566

RIB 1566: vexil(l)atio / legion[is… (a detachment of the … Legion…). Building stone found at Carraw before 1867. Source: RIB I pp.498-9

1567

RIB 1567

RIB 1567: c(enturia) Avid(i) Rufi (the century of Avidius Rufus (built this)). Centurial stone found at Carraw before 1867. Source: RIB I p.499

RIB 1568: coh(ortis) I / [c(enturia)] Terenti / Cantabr[i] (First Cohort, the century of Terentius Cantaber (built this)). Centurial stone found 1892 near Grindon school-house. Source: RIB I p.499

1569

RIB 1569

RIB 1569: leg(io) II / Augusta (Second Legion Augusta (built this)). Building stone found before 1812 at Sewingshields farm. Source: RIB I p.499

1570

RIB 1570

RIB 1570: coh(ortis) V / c(enturia) Caecili / Procli (Fifth Cohort, century of Caecilius Proclus (built this)). Centurial stone found before 1812 at Sewingshields farm. Source: RIB I p.500

1571

RIB 1571

RIB 1571: coh(ortis) V pr(incipis) / c(enturia) Max(imi) (Fifth Cohort, century of the princeps prior Maximus (built this)). Centurial stone found before 1812 at Sewingshields farm. Source: RIB I p.500

1572

RIB 1572

RIB 1572: c(enturia) Gelli / Philipp[i] (the century of Gellius Philippus (built this)). Centurial stone found at Sewingshields Farm gig-house before 1867. Source: RIB I p.500

RIB 1573: Nar (?). Building stone found 1892 on Military Road near Grindon school-house. Source: RIB I p.500

RIB 1574: leg(io) / II / Aug(usta) (Second Legion Augusta (built this)). Building stone found 1832 in Milecastle 36. Now lost. Source: RIB I pp.500-1

1575

RIB 1575

RIB 1575: c(enturia) Floriani / p(edes) XXII (century of Florianus (built) 22 feet). Centurial stone found before 1867 at Moss Kennels Farm. Source: RIB I p.501

RIB 3319: …] / v(otum) s(oluit) l(ibens) m(erito) (…willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow). Altar base found in 1810 in a field wall between Turrets 33a and 33b. Now lost. Source: RIB III p.312

RIB 3320: leg)(io) VI / Victrix / Pia Fid(elis) (Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (built this)). Building stone found 1973 at Turret 33b. Source: RIB III pp.312-13

RIB 3321: c(enturia) CRAI (century of ? (built this)). Centurial stone found 1970 in N face of wall at Turret 33b. Source: RIB III p.313

RIB 3322: + (?). Building stone found 1989 in N face of wall 19m E of Milecastle 35. Source: RIB III p.314

RIB 3323: c(ohortis) X (centuria) Mu(nati) / Maximi (Tenth Cohort century of Munatius). Centurial stone found 1958 187.5m E of Turret 35a. Source: RIB III p.314

RIB 3324: Canio [Vi]/ndicatus (Canio … Vindicatus). Slab found in wall core in 1958 18.2m E of Turret 35a. Source: RIB III p.315

RIB 3331: c(enturia) Saturninus / c(enturia) Lusitani / Hrindenus / optio (Saturninus, centurion. The century of Lusitanus, Hrindenus, optio). Quarry inscription found in 1960 on Queen’s Crags. Source: RIB III p.320

Analysis

The building stones along this stretch record work by the First, Fifth, and Tenth cohorts of a legion, almost certainly legio II Augusta, which is named on the lost building stone from Milecastle 36 (and possibly confirmed by the stone from Sewingshields Farm, possibly from Milecastle 35). The stone recording work by legio VI VIctrix found at Turret 33b probably relates to restoration work there after the return from the Antonine Wall in the later 2nd century.

The Per Lineam Valli atlas of Hadrian’s Wall

Back in 2007, I used Google Earth to plot the course of Hadrian’s Wall. To this I added some basic information, in the form of links to online resources like English Heritage’s (now Historic England’s) Pastscape, the National Monuments Record’s online database, references to documents on the Hadrian’s Wall Research Framework website, images of sites, and, information from Roman-Britain.org. You can still see the remnants of that early version on the Wayback Machine.

Now I have embarked upon an ambitious upgrade to the website. Online digital mapping has come a long way since my original efforts and I want to bring all the benefits of the latest techniques to the mapping of the Roman Wall – whether in the comfort of your own home or on your mobile phone on a wind-blasted hillside in Northumberland!

That, however, is not all that I’m up. Find out more in my next post on Patreon.

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The Roman Army A to Z: vinea

vinea (f. pl. vineae)

Literally a ‘vine arbour’, a wooden shed that formed part of a modular system for constructing covered walkways used by besiegers attacking a fortification. According to Vegetius, each was 8Rft (2.4m) wide, 16Rft (4.8m) long, and 7Rft (2.1m) high, with a roof covered in planking and sides in wattlework, an untanned leather or patchwork outer layer rendering the whole fireproof. Plaut., Mil. 2.2.113; Caes., BG 2.12.3; Veg., DRM 4.15. [Campbell 2003]