PLV Inscriptions (Carvoran)

Introduction

This section includes inscriptions from the fort at Carvoran. Although built as part of the Stanegate road system, it was ultimately listed as one of the sites per lineam valli by the time the Notitia Dignitatum was drawn up.

Inventory

RIB 1775: Altar dedicated to Baliticaurus found 1885/6 N of Carvoran. Deo / Balit/icau/ro v/otu(m) (For the god Baliticaurus an offering). Source RIB I p.554.

RIB 1776: Altar dedicated to Blatucadrus found in or before 1844 at Carvoran. D(e)o Blatu/cadro / votu(m) s(olutum) (For the god Blatucadrus the vow was fulfilled). Source RIB I p.554.

RIB 1777: Altar dedicated to Epona found before 1840 at Carvoran. Deae / Epon/ae P(…) So(…) (For the goddess Epona P(…) So(…) (set this up)). Source RIB I p.554.

RIB 1778: Altar to the Emperor’s Fortune found 1831 in the bath-house inside the SW angle of the fort at Carvoran. Fortunae Aug(ustae) / pro salute L(uci) Aeli / Caesaris ex visu / T(itus) Fla(vius) Secundus / praef(ectus) coh(ortis) I Ham/iorum Sagittar(iorum) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the Fortune of the Emperor, for the welfare of Lucius Aelius Caesar Titus Flavius Secundus, prefect of the First Cohort of Hamian Archers, due to a vision willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.555.

RIB 1779: Altar to Fortune found before 1716 at Carvoran. Fortun[ae] / Audac(ilius) Ro|manus 𐆛 / leg(ionum) VI XX / (II) Aug(ustae) (For Fortuna, Audacilius Romanus, centurion of the Sixth, Twentieth, and (Second) Augusta Legions, (set this up).). Source RIB I p.555.

RIB 1780: Altar to Hammia found before 1751 at Carvoran. De(a)e Ha/mmi(ae) / Sabi(nus) / f(ecit) (For the goddess Hammia, Sabinus made this). Source RIB I p.555.

RIB 1781: Dedication for Hercules found before 1599. Now lost. D(e)o / (H)erc(u)l[i] / [ ̣ ̣ ̣] (For the god Hercules …). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1782: Altar dedicated for Jupiter Optimus Maximus of Doliche. Now lost. I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) D(olicheno) / [ ̣ ̣] H [ ̣ ̣ ̣] (For Jupiter, Best and Greatest, of Doliche …). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1783: Altar dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus found at Carvoran before 1852. I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / Helio/polit(ano) / Iul(ius) Po/llio [ ̣ ̣ ̣] (For Jupiter Heliopolitanus, Best and Greatest, Julius Pollio (?) … [set this up]). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1784: Altar for Mars Belatucairus found before 1873 at Carvoran. D(e)o Marti / Belatu/cairo (For the god Mars Belatucairus). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1785: Altar dedicated for Mother Goddesses found around 1729 at Carvoran. Matrib[us] / [..]ntius [..] (For the Mother Goddesses …). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1786: Fragmentary dedication for M… and the Divinities of the Emperors found by Brand in 1779 at Carvoran. Deo M[…]- / et Numinibu[s Aug(ustorum)] / Iul(ius) Pacatus e[t ̣ ̣ ̣] / et Pacutius C[…]- / et V [ ̣ ̣] VAL […] / ccus a solo […fec]/er(unt) v(otum) s(olventes) [l(ibentes) m(erito)] (For the god M… and to the Divinities of the Emperors Julius Pacatus and … and Pacutius C[… and … built this building from ground-level, willingly and deservedly fulfilling their vow). Source RIB I p.556.

RIB 1787: Fragmentary dedication found at Carvoran before 1716. Now lost. D(e-) M(…) (For the deity M(…)). Source RIB I p.557.

RIB 1788: Inscription for Minerva found at Carvoran in 1867. [… Mi]ner[vae …] | […]ia Ae[…] (… for Minerva …). Source RIB I p.557.

RIB 1789: Altar dedicated to the Nymphs found at Carvoran before 1696. Deabus Nym/phis Vetti[a] / Mansueta e[t] / Claudia Turị[a]/ nilla fil(ia) v(otum) s(olverunt) l(ibentes) [m(erito)] (For the Goddesses, the Nymphs, Vettia Mansueta and Claudia Turianilla, her daughter, willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow). Source RIB I p.557.

RIB 1790: Altar for Silvanus found at Woodhead, 800m SE of Carvoran in 1760. Now lost. Silvano / Vellaeụṣ / […] (For Silvanus Vellaeus). Source RIB I p.558.

RIB 1791: Poem in iambic senarii dedicated to Virgo Caelestis found in the NE of Carvoran. Imminet Leoni Virgo caeles/ti situ spicifera iusti in/ventrix urbium conditrix / ex quis muneribus nosse con/tigit deos: ergo eadem mater divum / Pax Virtus Ceres dea Syria / lance vitam et iura pensitans. / in caelo visum Syria sidus edi/dit Libyae colendum: inde / cuncti didicimus. / ita intellexit numine inductus / tuo Marcus Caecilius Do/natianus militans tribunus / in praefecto dono principis (The Virgin in her place in the heavens rides upon the Lion; bearer of corn, inventor of law, founder of cities, by whose gifts it is the good lot of men to know the gods: she is therefore the Mother of the gods, Peace, Virtue, Ceres, the Syrian Goddess, weighing life and laws in her balance. Syria has sent the constellation seen in the heavens to Libya to be worshipped: thence have we all learned. Marcus Caecilius Donatianus, serving as tribune in the post of prefect by the Emperor’s gift, led by thy godhead, has understood this). Source RIB I p.558.

RIB 1792: Altar for the Syrian Goddess found at Carvoran in or before 1599. Deae Suri/ae sub Calp/urnio Ag[r]/ico[la] leg(ato) Au[g(usti)] / pr(o) pr(aetore) Lic[in]ius / [C]lem[ens praef(ectus)] / [co]h(ortis) I Ha[miorum] (For the Syrian Goddess, under Calpurnius Agricola, propraetorian legate of the emperor, Licinius Clemens, prefect of the First Cohort of Hamians, (set this up)). Source RIB I p.559.

RIB 1793: Altar for Veteris found before 1848 at Carvoran. Deo Vete/ri Nec/alame[s] / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the god Veteris Necalames willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.559.

RIB 1794: Altar for Veteris found before 1840 at Carvoran. Deo Ve/teri Ne/calam/es v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) (For the god Veteris Necalames willingly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.559.

RIB 1795: Altar for Veteris found in or before 1757 near Thirlwell Castle during construction of the Military Road. Deo sanct[o] / Veteri / Iul(ius) Pastor / imag(inifer) coh(ortis) II / Delmạ(tarum) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the holy god Veteris Julius Pastor, imaginifer of the Second Cohort of Dalmatians, willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.560.

RIB 1796: Altar for Vetiris found before 1757 at Carvoran. Deo Ve/tiri san/cto An/diatis / v(oto) s(oluto) l(ibens) m(erito) f(ecit) (For the holy god Vetiris, Andiatis on fulfilment of the vow willingly and deservedly set this up). Source RIB I p.560.

RIB 1797: Altar for Vetiris found before 1757 at Carvoran. Deo / Vetiri v(otum) (For the god Veteris, a vow). Source RIB I p.560.

RIB 1798: Altar dedicated to Viteris found before 1769 at Carvoran. Deo Vite/ri No[ ̣ ̣ ̣] (For the god Viteris…). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1799: Altar for Vitiris found at Carvoran before 1732. Deo / Vitiri / Meni(us) / Dada / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the god Vitiris Menius Dada willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1800: Altar for Vitiris found at Carvoran before 1873. Deo Vitiri / Milus et / Aurides / v(otum) s(olverunt) ❦ l(ibentes) m(erito) (For the god Vitiris Milus and Aurides willingly and deservedly fulfilled their vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1801: Altar for Vitiris found at Carvoran before 1599. Deo / Viti/ri Ne[c]|[a]limes / […]RO v(otum) / p(osuit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the god Vitiris Necalimes … willingly and deservedly set up his vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1802: Dedication for the Veteres found before 1716 at Carvoran. Vete/ribus […] (For the Veteres …). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1803: Altar for the Veteres found at Carvoran before 1892. Dibus / Veter/ibus / vot(u)m (For the gods the Veteres a vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1804: Altar for the Viteres found built into the farm house at Carvoran in 1896. Dibus Vit/[eribus] IVIX / A v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the gods the Viteres … willingly and deservedly fulfilled the vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1805: Altar for the Vitires found at Carvoran in 1725. Dibus / Vitiribus / Deccius / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the gods the Vitires Deccius willingly and deservedly fulfilled his vow). Source RIB I p.561.

RIB 1806: Pedestal with a dedication for an unnamed god found at Carvoran before 1857. Deo ar/milum / Binius / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (For the god Binius (gave) this bracelet, willingly and deservedly fulfilling his vow). Source RIB I p.562.

RIB 1807: Fragmentary dedication found at Carvoran before 1902. […] / [… e]x vo[to] / [po]sueru[nt] / l(ibentes) m(erito) (… willingly and deservedly …). Source RIB I p.562.

RIB 1808: Fragmentary dedication found built into a field wall at Carvoran around 1930. Now lost. [Imp(eratori) Caesa]ri Tr[aiano] / [Hadri]ano [Aug(usto)] / […] (To the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus …). Source RIB I p.562.

RIB 1809: Altar set up by the Hamian archers’ commander, Licinius Clemens, found at Carvoran before 1845. [… sub Calpur]/[ni]o Agri/cola co(n)s(ulari) / Licinius Cl[e]/mens p[raef(ectus)] (… under Calpurnius Agricola, of consular rank, Licinius Clemens, the prefect [set this up). Source RIB I p.562.

RIB 1810: Fragmentary inscription of cohors I Hamiorum found before 1840 at Carvoran. […]ius Agripp[a …] / [… coh(ortis) I] Hamioru[m …] (… Agrippa … of the First Cohort of Hamians …). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1811: Centurial stone of Claudius Augustanus found at or near Carvoran around 1755. coh(ortis) III 𐆛 Cl(audi) Aug/ustani (The century of Claudius Augustanus from the third cohort (built this)). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1812: Centurial stone of Flavius Noricus found near Carvoran before 1834. coh(ortis) X 𐆛 F(lavi) / Norici (The century of Flavius Noricus from the tenth cohort (built this)). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1813: Centurial stone of Claudius found in a farm building at Carvoran before 1767. 𐆛 Claudi / p(edes) XXX se(mis) (The century of Claudius (built) 30½ feet). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1814: Centurial stone of Felix found at Carvoran in 1867. 𐆛 Felicis / p(edes) XX f(ecit) (The century of Felix built 20 feet). Source RIB I p.563.

RIB 1815: Centurial stone of the Hortensian century found before 1833 at Carvoran. Now lost. 𐆛 H[ort(?)]e/ns[ia(?)]n[a(?)] (The Hortensian century (built this)). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1816: Centurial stone of Julius Ca[… found at Carvoran before 1833. 𐆛 Iul(i) Ca[…] / valla[vit] / p(edes) C[…] (The century of Julius Ca[… built 100 (and more) feet of rampart). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1817: Building inscription of Antonius Viator found at Carvoran before 1753. 𐆛 Mar[tialis] / Anto[nius] / Viato[r ex] / G(ermania) S(uperiore) f(ecit) (From the century of Martialis, Antonius Viator from Upper Germany built this). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1818: Centurial stone of Prim[… found at Blenkinsopp Castle in 1825. 𐆛 Primi[…] / v[alla]vit / p(edes) CX[II(?)] / sub Fl(avio) Secundo / pr(a)ef(ecto) (The century of Prim[… built 112 (?) feet of rampart under the command of the prefect Flavius Secundus). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1819: Centurial stone of Sentius Priscus found at Carvoran before 1818. 𐆛 Sen[ti] / Prisc[i] (The century of Sentius Priscus (built this)). Source RIB I p.564.

RIB 1820: Centurial stone of Silvanus found in 1940 c.90m E of Carvoran fort. 𐆛 Silvani / vallavit / p(edes) CXII sub / Fla(vio) Secundo / [pr]aef(ecto) (The century of Silvanus built 112 feet of rampart under the command of Flavius Secundus, the prefect). Source RIB I p.565.

RIB 1821: Centurial stone of Sorio found before 1807 at Carvoran. 𐆛 Sorioni(s) (The century of Sorio (built this)). Source RIB I p.565.

RIB 1822: Centurial stone of Valerius Cassianus found before 1775 at Carvoran. 𐆛 Valeri / Cassia/[ni] p(er) v(allum) p(edes) XIX (The century of Valerius Cassianus (built) along the fort-rampart 19 feet). Source RIB I p.565.

RIB 1823: Building inscription of the First Cohort of Batavians found before 1774 at Carvoran. coh(ors) I Bata/vorum f(ecit) (The First Cohort of Batavians built this). Source RIB I p.566.

RIB 1824: Building inscription of the First Cohort of Batavians found before 1758 at Carvoran. Now lost. coh(ors) Ba[ta]vorum (Cohort of Batavians). Source RIB I p.566.

RIB 1825: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1775. Now lost. […] Aug(ust-) […] / numeri […] / Magn{c}e(n)s(ium) […] / LE[…] (of the unit … of Magn[…] …). Source RIB I p.566.

RIB 1826: Funerary inscription for Gaius Valerius Tullus found before 1840 at Carvoran. G(aius) Valerius G(ai) (filius) Vol(tinia) (tribu) / Iullus Vian(na) mil(es) / leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) (Gaius Valerius Iullus, son of Gaius of the Voltinian voting-tribe, from Vienne, soldier of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix). Source RIB I p.567.

RIB 1827: Fragmentary funerary inscription found at Carvoran before 1774. Now lost. Ael(iae) S[…] | Aurel[…] | Marti[…] (For Aelia S[… Aur … Marti … (set this up)). Source RIB I p.567.

RIB 1828: Funerary inscription for Aurelia Aia found at Blenkinsopp Castle in 1825. D(is) M(anibus) / Aur(eliae) T(iti) f(iliae) Aiae / d(omo) Salonas / Aur(elius) Marcus / 𐆛 Obseq(uentis) con/iugi sanctis/simae quae vi/xit annis XXXIII / sine ulla macula (For the spirits of the departed; and to Aurelia Aia, daughter of Titus, from Salonae, Aurelius Marcus of the century of Obsequens (set this up) to his very pure wife, who lived 33 years without any blemish). Source RIB I p.567.

RIB 1829: Funerary inscription for Aurelia found at Carvoran before 1732. D(is) M(anibus) Aur(elia) […] VBE / OVC […] MA vix[it] / ann(os) […] Aur(elia) Pu[sin]/na so[rori] pien[tis]/sime et [des]id[eratis]/sime […] (For the spirits of the departed: Aurelia … lived … years; Aurelia Pusinna [set this up] to her most devoted and very much missed sister). Source RIB I p.567.

RIB 1830: Funerary inscription for Lifana found at Blenkinsopp Castle in 1880. D(is) M(anibus) / Lifana B[…]/ci filia v[ix]|it ann(os) […] / L(ucius) Seno[va]/lus av[un]culus [fe]|cit ❦ (To the spirits of the departed: Lifana, daughter of … lived … years; Lucius Senovalus, her uncle, made this). Source RIB I p.568.

RIB 1831: Fragmentary funerary inscription found before 1757 at Carvoran. […] / [an(norum) .] XXI / Aurel(ia) […] / mater f[il(iae) ca]rissime p[os(uit)] (… aged 21 [possible 31 or 41] Aurelia …, her mother, set this up to her most beloved daughter). Source RIB I p.568.

RIB 1832: Fragmentary funerary inscription found at Carvoran in 1938. [… con]iug(i) pi[issimae] / […] iona[e …] / […]s Sen[…] (… to …, his most devoted wife, [and to …]iona […]s Sen[… set this up]). Source RIB I p.568.

RIB 1833: Fragmentary funerary inscription found at Carvoran before 1832. […]provid[…] / [… I]anuari[…] / [… S]ecunda SA[…] (… Secunda …). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1834: Fragmentary funerary inscription found at Carvoran in 1929 whilst ploughing. […] IIA / […]sius et / [… f]ratres (… and … brothers …). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1835: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1811. Now lost. […]GERMA R[…] / […] AC NE[…] (?). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1836: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1834. Now lost. […]M ACVCIEA […] (?). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1837: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran in 1880. Now lost. […] / [p]ṛo [se et] / suis l(ibens) [m(erito)] (… willingly and deservedly for himself and his family). Source RIB I p.569.

RIB 1838: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1758. […] ORIP […] (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 1839: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1758. […]RI[ ̣]TE[…] (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 1840: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran in 1880. […]ID L / […] VSPA / […]F (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 1841: Fragmentary building inscription found at Carvoran before 1902. […] / LVI […] (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 1842: Fragmentary inscription found at Carvoran before 1902. […] / [.] MIS (?). Source RIB I p.570.

RIB 3392: Fragmentary altar found at Carvoran in 1971. [de]o ❦ / […] (For the god …). Source RIB III p.362.

RIB 3393: Fragmentary altar found at Carvoran Farm in 1987. […]/enus s(acrum) f[ec](it) (… […]enus consecrated (this)). Source RIB III p.363.

RIB 3394: Building stone of legio II Augusta found at Carvoran Farm in 1988. leg(io) / II | Augu[sta] / …. / L[…] (legio II Augusta …). Source RIB III p.364.

RIB 3395: Building stone of legio II Augusta found in a field wall at Carvoran in 1985. […] / [… l]eg(ionis) II (Augustae) (… of legio II Augusta). Source RIB III p.365.

RIB 3396: Inscribed building stone found in a field wall at Carvoran in 1983. […]X II (… twelve (or more)). Source RIB III p.365.

RIB 3397: Inscribed stone slab found in a field wall at Carvoran in 1978. XVIII (eighteen). Source RIB III p.366.

RIB 3398: Tombstone for Mamma found in ploughing at Carvoran in 1964. D(is) M(anibus) Mamma / Vict(oris) • f(ilia) • Baib(ius) • D/u(v)ianus coniu/gi sanctissim(ae) / quae vixit an(nos) • XXII/II (For the shades of the dead. Mamma, daughter of Victor. Baibius Duvianus to his most saintly wife who lived 24 years). Source RIB III p.366.

RIB 3399: Fragmentary tombstone found in a field wall at Carvoran in the 1980s. AM[…] / […] (?). Source RIB III p.368.

RIB 3400: Fragmentary tombstone found in a field wall at Carvoran in 1982/3. […] / […]s VI • (… six). Source RIB III p.368.

Analysis

Although Carvoran was part of the Stanegate system of forts, it was the best placed to lend direct support to Hadrian’s Wall, which was presuambly why it came to be incoportaed within the Wall system.

Dedications from the site include Belatucadrus, a regional deity from the north-west of Roman Britain. The Veteres are represented in force, as is the case at many sites along the frontier. Epona, a Celtic horse goddess is present, as are Hammia and Suria, the first a regional personification reflecting the rigins of the eastern archers based there, and the latter a provincial goddess freqeuntly equated with Julia Domna, the wife of Septimius Severus, who came from Emesa. Note that the transcription of Suria reflects the pronunciation of ‘Syria’ in the Roman period (as now, in Arabic). Finally, Hercules and Jupiter, both Dolichenus and Helipolitanus, make an appearance.

The Hamian archers were the principal garrison unit at the site, but the cohortes I Batavorum and II Delmatarum were also recorded, as was a legionary centurion (although it is unclear under what circumstances: with a legionary detachment or commanding auxiliary troops?). The building stones mentioning legio II Augusta probably reflect the construction of the stone fort which, as at Vindolanda, was much smaller than the earlier, underlying turf-and-timber fort (the extent of which is probably indicated by a deviation in the course of the Vallum). The tombstone of G. Valerius Tullus, a soldier of legio XX (RIB 1826), may date back to the construction or even garrisoning of this early Stanegate fort (his name is given in the nominative case typical of the 1st century AD). The centurial stones mentioning a length of construction probably also relate to the building of the later fort, since it was not normal practice to record this on the Hadrian’s Wall curtain wall. The dedication to Hadrian (RIB 1808) is thought unlikely to come from the nearby Milecastle 46 (the text differs from the regular milecastle inscriptions and has an elaborate border) so may belong to the gateway of the later stone fort (thus providing a Hadrianic date for that, along with RIB 1820, since Flavius Secundus commanded I Hamiorum in AD 136–8).

Finally, the Aurelia/us names from civilian inscriptions suggest the continued occupation of the fort vicus into the 3rd century.