The Roman Army A to Z: cohors

cohors (f. pl. cohortes Ang. cohort)

1. A sub-unit of a legio, normally comprising six centuriae (although the First Cohort comprised five double-strength centuriae) (Veg., DRM 2.6; DMC 2–3); 2. an auxiliary infantry or part-mounted unit, either normal or double-strength (AE 1994, 1303); c. equitata: a part-mounted unit with both infantry and cavalry (DMC 19; CIL XI, 7427; AE 1925, 44); c. legionaria: a legionary cohort, as distinct from any other sort (DMC 4); c. milliaria: A cohort of ten centuriae, or 800 men (DMC 28; AE 2003, 1440); c. peditata: An infantry unit (DMC 19; CIL III, 3318; XVI, 112); c. praetoria: A sub-unit of the Praetorian Guard, formed under Augustus; there were originally nine and later up to sixteen (under Vitellius) cohortes praetoriae (DMC 6; Tac., Ann. 4.5.3; CIL VI, 2442); c. quingenaria: a normal-strength unit of six centuriae, or 480 men (DMC 28; AE 1983, 851b); c. sagittariorum a unit of archers (CIL III, 600; RIB 1778); c. voluntariorum A unit of Roman citizens serving as auxilia (AE 1994, 1303; CIL III, 386a). [Keppie 1984]

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