PLV Inscriptions (Great Chesters to Carvoran)

Introduction

The bulk of the inscriptions from this sector derive from 19th- and 20th-century excavation and 20th-century consolidation work on the curtain wall, mostly in the region of Walltown Crags.

Inventory

RIB 1754: coh(ortis) V / c(enturia) Sexti Proc(uli) (‘Fifth Cohort, century of Sextus Proculus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1909 near Milecastle 44. Source: RIB I p.549

RIB 1755: coh(ortis) III [c(enturia)] / Seni[lis] (‘Third Cohort, century of Senilis’). Centurial stone found 1904 in debris near Milecastle 44. Source: RIB I p.550

RIB 1756: coh(ortis) VII / [c(enturia) ..]XI[..]IAN[.] (‘Seventh Cohort, century of (…)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 at Allollee farm cow shed. Source: RIB I p.550

RIB 1757: coh(ortis) VIII / c(enturia) Secci (‘Eighth cohort, the century of Seccius (built this)’). Centurial stone found in Wall debris near Milecastle 44. Source: RIB I p.550

RIB 1758: c(enturia) Maxi(mi) (‘the century of Maximus (built this)’). Centurial stone found in Wall debris near Milecastle 44. Source: RIB I p.550

RIB 1759: co[h(ortis) (‘… cohort …’). Centurial stone found before 1732 at Allolee farm. Source: RIB I p.550

RIB 1760: c(enturia) Mari Dex(tri) (‘the century of Marius Dexter (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1873 near the Wall, then built into Allolee farm. Source: RIB I p.550

RIB 1761: c(enturia) Valeri / Veri (‘the century of Valerius Verus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1873 near the Wall, then built into Allolee farm. Source: RIB I p.551

RIB 1762: [Leg(ionis)] XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / [c(o)h]o(rtis) X / [|(centuria) Iul]i Flo/[ren]tini (‘the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix, Tenth Cohort, century of Iulius Florentinus (built this)’). Centurial stone found in 1892 at Mucklebank Turret. Source: RIB I p.551

RIB 1763

RIB 1763

RIB 1763: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) / Fl(avi) Cre(scentis) (‘First Cohort, century of Flavius Crescens (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1892 on the SE corner of Turret 44b. Source: RIB I p.551

RIB 1764: coh(ortis) VIII / c(enturia) Secci (‘Eighth Cohort, century of Seccus’). Centurial stone found before 1873 at Low Town farm. Source: RIB I p.551

RIB 1765: c(enturia) Mu/nati / Max(imi) (‘century of Munatius Maximus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 near Walltown. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.552

RIB 1766: coh(ortis) V / c(enturia) Val(eri) / Maximi (‘Fifth Cohort, the century of Valerius Maximus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1807 at Walltown. Source: RIB I p.552

RIB 1767: …v(otum)] / s(olvit) l(ibens) l(aetus) m(erito) (‘gladly, willingly, and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1716 near Walltown. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.552

RIB 1768: coh(ortis) III / |(centuria) Socelliana (‘Third Cohort, the former century of Socellius (built this)’). Centurial stone found in 1757, probably near Turret 44b. Now lost. Source: RIB I pp.552-3

RIB 1769: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Ferroni / Vegeti (‘Third Cohort, the century of Ferronius Vegetus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1939 E of Walltown quarry. Source: RIB I p.553

RIB 1770: c(enturia) Cl(audi) Au/gus[t]a(ni) (‘the century of Claudius Augustanus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1939 E of Walltown quarry. Source: RIB I p.553

RIB 1771: c(enturia) Mar/i Dext(ri) (‘the century of Marius Dexter (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1939 E of Walltown Quarry. Source: RIB I p.553

RIB 1772: c(o)ho(rtis) VI c(enturia) / Lepidiana (‘Sixth Cohort, the former century of Lepidius (built this)’). Centurial stone found in 1948 E of Turret 45b. Source: RIB I p.553

RIB 1773: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) [IIOIIV] (‘Third Cohort, the century of… (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1883 near Turret 45b. Source: RIB I p.553

RIB 1774: coh(ortis) V / c(enturia) Iuli Vale(ntis) (‘Fifth Cohort, the century of Iulius Valens (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1885 between Turret 45a and 45b. Source: RIB I p.553

RIB 3377: coh(ortis) V / c(enturia) Val(erii) / Rufini (‘Fifth Cohort, the century of Valerius Rufinus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1980 near Turret 45a. Source: RIB III p.353

RIB 3378: leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / c(o)ho(rtis) X / c(enturia) Fl(avi) Nor/ici (‘From the Twentieth Legion, Fifth Cohort, the century of Flavius Noricus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 7.63m W of Turret 45a. Source: RIB III p.354

RIB 3379: coh(ortis) VI / c(enturia) Caledo(ni) / Secundi (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Caledonius Secundus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1959 47.28m W of Turret 45a, fallen from S face. Source: RIB III pp.354-5

RIB 3380: X (’10’). Building stone found 1987 96m W of Turret 45a in situ on the N face. Source: RIB III p.355

RIB 3381: X (’10’). Building stone found 1987 98m W of Turret 45a in situ on the N face. Source: RIB III p.355

RIB 3382: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) / Libonis (‘First Cohort, the century of Libo’). Building stone found 1987 95.16m W of Turret 45a in rubble from the S face. Source: RIB III p.356

RIB 3383: c(enturia) Ulpi Vo/lusiini (‘the century of Ulpius Volusiinus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1960 96.28m W of Turret 45a in rubble on N side of Wall. Source: RIB III p.356

RIB 3384: VIII (‘8’). Building stone found 1960 96.28m W of Turret 45a in rubble on N side of Wall. Source: RIB III pp.356-7

RIB 3385: c(enturia) Caledon(i) / Secundi (‘the century of Caledonius Secundus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1959 137.4m W of Turret 45a. Source: RIB III p.358

RIB 3386: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Maximi (‘Third Cohort, the century of Maximus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1960 between Turrets 45a and b. Source: RIB III p.358

RIB 3387: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Max(imi) Ter(e)n(ti) (‘Third Cohort, the century of Maximus Terentius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1960 151m W of Turret 45a. Source: RIB III p.359

RIB 3388

RIB 3388

RIB 3388: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) O[…] (‘Third Cohort, the century of O(…) (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1960 160m W of Turret 45a. Source: RIB III p.360

RIB 3389: c(enturia) Mari / Dext(ri) (‘the century of Marius Dexter (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1960 245.2m W of Turret 45a fallen from S face. Source: RIB III p.360

RIB 3390: c(enturia) Val(eri) Veri (‘the century of Valerius Verus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1960 287.3m W of Turret 45a fallen from S face. Source: RIB III p.361

RIB 3391: coh(ortis) II / c(enturia) Laetiani (‘Second Cohort, the century of Laetianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1960 295.5m W of Turret 45a. Source: RIB III p.361

Analysis

These inscriptions almost exclusively derive from the building work of the Twentieth Legion and this is reflected in the number of inscriptions with very detailed geolocational information. The issue of the allocation of centurial inscriptions has been dealt with elsewhere, but the sample provided by this and subsequent consolidated sections provides a detailed insight into the cohorts and centuries of the Twentieth Legion working here.

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PLV Inscriptions (Rudchester)

Introduction

An important group of four altars comes from the mithraeum to the south-west of the fort, in the civil settlement. The other stones were found reused in the vicinity.

Inventory

RIB 1395

RIB 1395

RIB 1395: Deo Invicto / Mytrae P(ublius) Ae(lius) / Titullus prae(fectus) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(aetus) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the Invincible God Mithras, Publius Aelius Titullus, prefect, gladly, willingly, and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1844 in the mithraeum at Rudchester. Source: RIB I pp.454-5

RIB 1396

RIB 1396

RIB 1396: Deo Soli Invic(to) / Tib(erius) Cl(audius) Dec(i)mus / Cornel(ius) Anto/nius praef(ectus) / templ(um) restit(uit) (‘For the invincible sun god, Tiberius Claudius Decimus Antonius, prefect, restored the temple’). Altar found 1844 in the mithraeum at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.455

RIB 1397

RIB 1397

RIB 1397: Soli / Apollini / Aniceto / [Mithrae] / Apon[i]us / Rogatianus / [… (‘For the sun god Apollo Anicetus Mithras, Aponius Rogatianus…’). Altar found 1844 in the mithraeum at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.455

RIB 1398

RIB 1398

RIB 1398: Deo / L(ucius) Sentius / Castus / (centurio) leg(ionis) VI d(ono) p(osuit) (‘For the god, Lucius Sentius Castus, centurion of the Sixth Legion set this up as a gift’). Altar found 1844 in the mithraeum at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.456

RIB 1399: …]ulius [… / …]ogenes [… / sol]uit felic[iter] (‘…]ulius […]ogenes …successfully fulfilled…’). Found 1875 in a wall at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.456

RIB 1400: coh(ortis) III[I] / c(enturia) Pedi Qui(nti) (‘Fourth cohort, the century of Pedius Quintus (built this)’). Centurial stone found around 1875 in a wall at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.457

RIB 1401: [c]oh(ortis) VI / c(enturia) Aprilis (‘the sixth cohort, century of Aprilis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1848 at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.457

RIB 1402

RIB 1402

RIB 1402: c(enturia) Arri (‘the century of Arrius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1875 in a wall at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.457

RIB 1403: NEMI (‘?’). Found before 1852 near Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.457

RIB 1404: [D(is) M(anibus)] / Aur(eli) […]/rini [vi]/xit [an]/nis […] (‘For the immortal shades and Aurelius […]rinus, he lived […] years…’). Tombstone found 1810 at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.457

RIB 1405: …] / [si]t tib[i / terra] levis (‘…may the soil rest lightly upon you’). Tombstone found 1789 at Rudchester. Source: RIB I p.458

Analysis

The four inscribed altars (RIB 1395–8; an additional, small, uninscribed one was recovered in 1844) reflect the elite nature of the adherents of the cult of Mithras, three of them being set up by unit commanders, the fourth (possibly) by a centurion (who, given that he explicitly states he was from the Sixth Legion, may have been in temporary command of the unit based there). Although the mithraeum was first found in 1844, it was not properly excavated until 1953.

None of the inscriptions from Rudchester records the fact, but the fort was garrisoned by the cohors I Frisiavonum in the 4th century (and probably in the 3rd century too); the earliest unit based there is unknown.

Other stones, such as the centurial stones RIB 1400–2, may have come from the Wall near the fort (Arrius was certainly active near Benwell). The two tombstones, on the other hand, almost certainly derive from the civil settlement of the fort itself.

Hadrian’s Wall Inscriptions (Benwell to Rudchester)

Introduction


This section covers Wall Miles 6 to 13, nearly all of which (i.e. WM8–13) is now beneath the Military Road. Many are unprovenanced, usually having been rebuilt into another structure, but some were recovered from the Wall during the construction of the road in 1751. Unfortunately, the locations of these stones were not accurately recorded.

Inventory

RIB 1353: VIAT (‘…]VIAT[…’).  Found 1807 built into a house near MC7. Now lost.  Source: RIB I p.446

RIB 1354

RIB 1354

RIB 1354: c(enturia) Here/nniani (‘The century of Herennianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 beside the road at Denton. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.446

RIB 1355: N (‘N’). Building stone found before 1789. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.446

RIB 1356: c(enturia) Iuli / Rufi (‘The century of Iulius Rufus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1804 near Denton Hall. Source: RIB I p.447

RIB 1357: c(enturia) Iuli / Rufi (‘The century of Iulius Rufus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1804 near Denton Hall. Source: RIB I p.447

RIB 1358

RIB 1358

RIB 1358: leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) I / fec(it) (‘Second Legion First Cohort built this’). Building stone found 1869 near Denton Hall. Source: RIB I p.447

RIB 1359: l(egionis) II Aug(ustae) / c(o)ho(rs) VIII / fec(it) (‘Second Legion Eighth Cohort made this’). Building stone found 1716 in East Denton. Source: RIB I p.447

RIB 1360

RIB 1360

RIB 1360: leg(ionis) / II Aug(ustae) co/h(ors) VIII (‘Second Legion Eighth Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found 1725 at Denton Wood House. Source: RIB I p.448

RIB 1361: c(enturia) Tu[lli] (‘The century of Tullius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1936 on north mound of Vallum. Source: RIB I p.448

RIB 1362: c(enturia) Val(eri) Fl(avi) (‘Century of Valerius Flavus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1934 on north mound of Vallum. Source: RIB I p.448

RIB 1363: c(enturia) Val(eri) Fl(avi) (‘Century of Valerius Flavus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1934 on north mound of Vallum. Source: RIB I p.448

RIB 1364: c(enturia) Pro(culi) (‘Century of Proculus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1934 on north mound of Vallum. Source: RIB I p.448

RIB 1365: c(oh(ortis) I / Dacor(um) / c(enturia) Ael(i) Dida(e) (‘First Cohort of Dacians the century of Aelius Dida (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1936 on north mound of Vallum. Source: RIB I p.449

RIB 1366

RIB 1366

RIB 1366: Iov/i O(ptimo) M(aximo) / [… (‘For Jupiter Best and Greatest…’). Altar found 1822 on the Wall west of Denton Hall. Source: RIB I p.448

RIB 1367: c(enturia) Atisi (‘The century of Atisius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1953. Source: RIB I p.448

RIB 1368: c(enturia) Avi/di Rufi (‘The century of Avidius Rufus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1904 in main road west of lane to Newburn. Source: RIB I p.448

RIB 1369: c(enturia)] / Iuli Pri[…] (‘century of Iulius Primus’). Centurial stone found before 1851 in West Denton. Source: RIB I p.449

RIB 1370: VIII (‘8’). Building stone found 1929 in Milecastle 9. Source: RIB I p.450

RIB 1371: VIIII (‘9’). Building stone found 1929 in Milecastle 9. Source: RIB I p.450

RIB 1372: X (’10’). Building stone found 1929 in Milecastle 9. Source: RIB I p.450

RIB 1373

RIB 1373

RIB 1373: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) (‘century of the first centurion (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1794 in a stable in Walbottle. Source: RIB I p.450

RIB 1374

RIB 1374

RIB 1374: c(enturia) Iuli Pro/culi (‘century of Iulius Proculus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1906 200 yds W of Engine Inn. Source: RIB I p.450

RIB 1375: coh(ortis) V[… / c(enturia) Iuli Iuv(enalis?) (‘The fifth(/sixth/seventh) cohort, the century of Iulius Iuvenalis’). Centurial stone found 1789 near Walbottle. Source: RIB I pp.450-1

RIB 1376

RIB 1376

RIB 1376: c(enturia) Pere/grini (‘century of Peregrinus’). Centurial stone found 1794 slightly east of Walbottle on south mound of Vallum. Source: RIB I p.451

RIB 1377: c(enturia) Muci. / .EN (‘the century of Mucius … (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1732 in a cow shed in Walbottle. Source: RIB I p.451

RIB 1378

RIB 1378

RIB 1378: F]elix… (‘Felix…’). Building stone found 1857 at Walbottle. Source: RIB I p.451

RIB 1379: a) I b) III c) V d) VII[ e) VIII f) IX (‘a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 7(or 8/9) e) 8 f) 9’). Building stones found 1732 in field walls near Walbottle. Source: RIB I p.451

RIB 1380

RIB 1380

RIB 1380: c(enturia) Car[… (‘The century of Car[…’). Centurial stone found in 1864 at Milecastle 10. Source: RIB I p.451

RIB 1381: V (‘5’). Building stone found before 1732 in Throckley. Source: RIB I p.452

RIB 1382: X (’10’). Building stone found before 1732 in Throckley. Source: RIB I p.452

RIB 1383: C (‘C’ or ‘100’). Building stone found 1926 at Great Hill, near Heddon. Source: RIB I p.452

RIB 1384: R (‘R’). Building stone found 1926 at Great Hill, near Heddon. Source: RIB I p.452

RIB 1385: leg(ionis) XX / V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / coh(ors) IV (‘Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix (built this)’). Building stone found 1807 in the vicarage at Heddon and now lost. Source: RIB I p.452

RIB 1386: c(enturia) Iul(i) / Ruf(i) (‘The century of Iulius Rufus’). Centurial stone found 1807 in the vicarage at Heddon and now lost. This centurion is also recorded in RIB 1356 & 1357. Source: RIB I p.452

RIB 1387: c(enturia) Fl(avi) As/[… (‘The century of Flavius As[…’). Centurial stone found in church at Heddon-on-the-Wall. Source: RIB I p.453

RIB 1388: leg(ionis) VI [V]i/ct(ricis) P(iae) F(idelis) re[f]/ecit coh(ors) X (‘From the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis the tenth cohort rebuilt this’). Building stone found (probably near Heddon-on-the-Wall) during construction of the Military Road in 1751. Now missing. Source: RIB I p.453

RIB 1389: leg(io) VI V(ictrix) P(ia) / F(idelis) ref(ecit) Te/r(tullo) et Sac(erdote) co(n)s(ulibus) / S(…) F(…) (‘The Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis rebuilt this in the consulship of Tertullus and Sacerdos. S(…) F(…)’). Building stone found (probably near Heddon-on-the-Wall) during construction of the Military Road in 1751. Now missing. The consular date is AD 158. Source: RIB I p.453

RIB 1390: leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / coh(ors) VIII (‘Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix, eighth cohort’). Building stone found (probably near Heddon-on-the-Wall) during construction of the Military Road in 1751. Now missing. Source: RIB I p.453

RIB 1391: leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / coh(ortis) X [c(enturia)] prin(cipis prioris) (‘From the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix, tenth cohort, the century of the princeps prior (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1751 during construction of the Military Road, probably near Heddon. Source: RIB I p.453

RIB 1392: coh(ors) pr/ima DC . L (‘First cohort…’]. Building stone found 1751 during construction of the Military Road, probably near Heddon. Source: RIB I p.454

RIB 1393: XIII (’13’). Building stone found before 1952 at Heddon. Source: RIB I p.454

RIB 1394: Cl(audius) · P[… (‘Claudius…’). Found 1932 at Heddon North Lodge. Source: RIB I p.454

RIB 3286: I (‘1’). Building stone found 1930 in Newburn. Source: RIB III p.287

RIB 3287: II (‘2’). Building stone found 1930 in Newburn. Source: RIB III p.287

RIB 3288: + (‘+’). Building stone found 1930 in Newburn. Source: RIB III p.287

Analysis

There is much that can be made from this disparate bunch of mural chisellings. The bulk of the inscriptions from this section fall into the categories of centurial or building stones, with some quarry marks thrown in for good measure. Amongst the centurial stones, there is also an apparent division between legionary centurions (building the curtain wall itself) and auxiliary centurions working on the Vallum.

The Wall sector between Milecastle 6 (just before Benwell) and around Turret 11b (just before Heddon) has traditionally been assigned to legio II Augusta (Birley 1961, 257), with legio XX Valeria Victrix building Turret 11b to around Milecastle 17, based upon the evidence of the building stones. If correct, this would suggest that Iulius Rufus (RIB 1356-7, 1386), Avidius Rufus (RIB 1368), Iulius Primus (RIB 1369), Iulius Proculus (RIB 1374), and Iulius Iuvenalis (RIB 1375) were all centurions of II Augusta, evidently belonging to cohortes I, VIII, and V[… (the primus pilus mentioned in RIB 1373 was the centurion commanding cohors I in a legion; cf RIB 1358). Two inscriptions referring to reconstruction work by legio VI Victrix (one dated to AD 158) presumably relate to their repairing original shoddy construction work (by legio XX?!) after the retreat from the Antonine Wall.

A group of centurial inscriptions from the Vallum (RIB 1361-5, 1376) indicate construction work there by auxiliaries, specifically from cohors I Aelia Dacorum (RIB 1365). This puts the lie to the old chestnut about construction work always being undertaken by legionaries (partly inspired by the images on Trajan’s Column) and this appears to be confirmed by part of Hadrian’s address to troops at Lambaesis (in modern Algeria), where he mentions troops of a mixed cohort building walls and digging ditches. It also presumably meant the legions could carry on constructing the curtain wall and its associated structures whilst the auxiliaries worked on the Vallum.

Some centurions’ names occur more than once. Iulius Rufus (RIB 1356-7, 1386) is found at both Denton and near Heddon (if the same centurion, it indicates leapfrogging by work gangs of the same legion). Avidius Rufus is encountered again to the west of Carrawburgh fort (RIB 1567 and possibly 1564-5).

Finally, the altar (RIB 1366) may originally have come from Milecastle 8 (since, outwith forts and their civil settlements, altars on the Wall usually only occur at milecastles).

References

Birley, E. (1961), Research on Hadrian’s Wall, Kendal

Hadrian’s Wall Inscriptions (Benwell)

Introduction


Most of the inscriptions are unprovenanced beyond coming from the fort or its immediate vicinity, although a well-known collection come from the Temple of Antenociticus to the south-east, within the vicus.

Inventory

RIB 1327

RIB 1327

RIB 1327: Deo / Antenocitico / et Numinib(us) / Augustor(um) / Ael(ius) Vibius / c(enturio) leg(ionis) XX V(alaeriae) V(ictricis) / v(otum) s(oluit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the god Antenociticus and the deities of the Emperors, Aelius Vibius, centurion of the Twentieth Legion Valera Victrix, willing and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1862 in the temple of Antenociticus. Source: RIB I p.439

RIB 1328: Deo An[t}enocitico / sacrum / coh(ors) I Va[n]gion(um) / quib(us) prae est / […]c(ius) Cassi/[anus p]raef(ectus) / [v(otum) s(oluit) l(ibens)] m(erito) (‘Sacred for the god Antenociticus, the First cohort of Vangioni who are under the prefect […] Cassianus, willing and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1862 in the Temple of Antenociticus. Source: RIB I p.439

RIB 1329: Deo An(ten)ocitico / iudiciis Optimo/rum Maximorum/que Imp(eratorum) N(ostrorum) sub Vlp(io) / Marcello co(n)s(ulari) Tine/ius Longus in p[re]/fectura equitu[m] / lato clavo exorna/tus et q(uaestor) d(esignatus) (‘For the god Antenociticus, Tineius Longus (set this up), adorned with the broad stripe and designated quaestor whilst prefect of cavalry, by the decrees of the best and greatest Emperors, under Ulpius Marcellus, consular governor’). Altar found 1862 in the Temple of Antenociticus. Marcellus was governor AD180-5. Source: RIB I p.440

RIB 1330

RIB 1330

RIB 1330: I(ovi) O(ptimo) [M(aximo) Dolic]he/no et N[u]minibus / Aug(ustorum) pro salute imp(eratoris) / Caesaris T(iti) Aeli Hadr(iani) / Antonini Aug(usti) Pii p(atris) p(atriae) / et leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / M(arcus) Liburnius Fron/to c(enturio) leg(ionis) eiusdem / v(otum) s(oluit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For Jupiter Dolichenus, Best and Greatest, and the deities of the Emperors, for the well-being of the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, father of the country, and of the Second Legion Augusta, Marcus Liburnius Fronto, centurion of that legion, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1725 at Benwell. Source: RIB I pp.440-1

RIB 1331

RIB 1331

RIB 1331: Lamiis / tribus (‘For the three lamiae’). Altar found 1751 during construction of Military Road. Source: RIB I p.1331

RIB 1332: Deo M/arti / Lenu/anus / v(otum) s(oluit) (‘For the god Mars, Lenuanus fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1789 in the north of the fort. Source: RIB I p.441

RIB 1333: Deo M/arti V/ictor(i) / Vind(ex) / v(otum) s(oluit) (‘For the god Mars, Vindex fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1789 in northern part of fort. Source: RIB I p.441

RIB 1334: Matr(ibus) Tribus Campes[t]r[i]b(us) / et Genio alae pri(mae) Hispano/rum Asturum […/…] Gordi[a]nae T(erentius?) / Agrippa prae(fectus) templum a so(lo) res/tituit (‘For the three mother goddesses of the training ground and to the Genius of the First ala of Asturians called … Gordian’s, Terentius Agrippa, prefect, restored this temple from ground level.’). Dedication found before 1789. Source: RIB I pp.441-2

RIB 1335: Deo / Vetri / sangto (‘For the sacred god Vetris’). Altar found before 1789 in north of fort. Source: RIB I p.442

RIB 1336: Vit/ir(i)b/us (‘For the Vitires’). Base found before 1789 in north of fort. Source: RIB I p.442

RIB 1337

RIB 1337

RIB 1337: Victoriae / [Au]g(ustorum) Alfe/no Senecio/n[e] co(n)s(ulari) felix / ala I Asto(rum) / […] M pra(efecto) (‘For the Victory of the Emperors, with Alfenus Senecio as consular governor, the lucky First Ala of Asturians (set this up), when […] M was prefect’). Dedication found around 1669 in the fort. It dates to c.AD 205-8. Source: RIB I p.442

RIB 1338

RIB 1338

RIB 1338: …] / c(enturio) leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / v(otum) s(oluit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘… centurion of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1725. Source: RIB I p.443

RIB 1339: …]/troius / c(enturio) et s(ui) v(otum) s(oluerunt) l(aeti) l(ibentes) / m(erito) (‘…]troius, centurion, and his kin gladly, willingly, and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1863. Source: RIB I p.443

RIB 1340

RIB 1340

RIB 1340: Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) Traiano / Hadr[ia]n(o) Aug(usto) / A(ulo) Platorio N[epote l]eg(ato) Aug(usti) pr(o) p[r(aetore)] / vexillatio c[lassis] Britan(nicae) (‘For the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, under Aulus Platorius Nepos, propraetorian legate of the Emperor, a detachment from the Classis Britannica (built this)’). Building stone found 1937 in a granary portico. Source: RIB I p.443

RIB 1341

RIB 1341

RIB 1341: leg(io) II Aug(usta) (‘Second Legion Augusta (built this)’). Building stone found before 1789 in the north of the fort. Source: RIB I p.444

RIB 1342

RIB 1342

RIB 1342: leg(ionis) / II Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) II (‘Second cohort of the Second Legion Augusta built this’). Building stone found before 1732. Source: RIB I p.444

RIB 1343: leg(ionis) II c/oh(ors) IIII (‘Second Legion, Fourth Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 in the fort. Source: RIB I p.444

RIB 1344

RIB 1344

RIB 1344: leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) X (‘Second Legion Augusta, Tenth Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found before 1732 at Benwell. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.444

RIB 1345

RIB 1345

RIB 1345: c(enturia) Arri (‘century of Arrius (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732. Source: RIB I p.445

RIB 1346

RIB 1346

RIB 1346: c(enturia) Arri (‘century of Arrius (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1873. Source: RIB I p.445

RIB 1347

RIB 1347

RIB 1347: c(enturia) Pereg/rini (‘The century of Peregrinus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732, Now lost. Source: RIB I p.445

RIB 1348

RIB 1348

RIB 1348: …]NIO / …]BI[…]VV/ …]I[…]SV/ …]AVG […]E / …a]lae I As/[turum…] OI I /…]V/ …] (‘… First Ala of Asturians …’). Dedication found 1852 then destroyed. Source: RIB I p.445

RIB 1349

RIB 1349

RIB 1349: D(is) [M(anibus) / Aure[l… / P[.]L[.]IC[… / A[.]EP[… (‘For the sprits of the departed, Aureli…’). Tombstone found before 1732. Source: RIB I p.445

RIB 1350: D(is) M(anibus) s(acrum) D(ecimus) Iuliu/s Q(uinti) f(ilius) Candidus c(o)ho(rtis) / p(rimae) Vangionum a(nnorum) XXXX (‘Sacred to the shades of the departed, Decimus Iulius Candidus, son of Quintus, from the First Cohort of Vangiones, 40 years (old)’). Tombstone found 1938 in a building overlying the Vallum crossing. Source: RIB I p.446

RIB 1351

RIB 1351

RIB 1351: D(is) M(anibus) / P(ublio) Sermul/lio Marti/ali (‘For the immortal shades, for Publius Sermullius Martialis’). Tombstone found 1877 500 yds west of Benwell near the Vallum. Source: RIB I p.446

RIB 1352: S E V (‘S E V’). Found 1862, now lost. Source: RIB I p.446

RIB 3285: Minervae / Primus (‘For Minerva from Primus’). Altar found 1937-8 during roadworks. Source: RIB II p.286

Analysis

The presence of several (largely unprovenanced) building stones from legio II Augusta and the large formal dedication by the Classis Britannica are rather difficult to untangle (were both detachments building the fort?) unless II Augusta are seen as building the curtain wall and the fleet the fort, after the fort decision has been made and the wall-builders have moved on. If the fleet were used because they had brought over the legio VI Victrix, then that might have interesting timing implications for the whole Wall project, but this may in fact be too speculative to be of any practical help. Tombstones and religious dedications reflect the presence of the vicus, now prominently manifested in the form of the remains of the Temple of Antenociticus.

Ala I Asturum are recorded as a garrison, but so is cohors I Vangionum. However, whilst legio II Augusta is recorded involved in construction, there are also dedications by centurions of that legion and legio XX that indicate their presence at the site, perhaps in temporary charge of auxiliary units, or perhaps even of legionary detachments, possibly acting as interim garrisons.

Hadrian’s Wall inscriptions (Newcastle to Benwell)

Introduction

The inscriptions come from four disparate locations, three of them close to the line of the Wall, one 6km to the north (but assumed to come from the Wall).

Inventory

RIB 1323

RIB 1323

RIB 1323: coh(ors) I Th/racum (‘First Cohort of Thracians (built this)’). Building stone found 1864 in Clavering Place. Source: RIB II p.438

RIB 1324: coh(ors) VII / […] (‘Seventh Cohort …’). Building stone found 1826 in North Gosforth Chapel. Source: RIB II p.438

RIB 1325: …II O / F[E]IIIIOI (‘?’). Found 1932 Express Hotel outbuilding. Source: RIB II p.438

RIB 1326: VIII (‘8’). Building stone found 1890 at Rye Hill. Source: RIB II p.438

Analysis

RIB 1323 comes from close to the likely line of the Vallum; elsewhere, building stones recording work by auxiliaries have been associated with that component of the Wall system. RIB 1324 has travelled some way in order to be built into the medieval chapel in Gosforth. Although there is no guarantee it comes from the Wall, there are few other convenient sources in the area. RIB 1325 is now lost but on the line of the curtain wall, whilst the enigmatic RIB 1326 again comes from close to the Vallum.

Hadrian’s Wall inscriptions (Newcastle)

Introduction

The inscriptions come from six locations, two of them being excavations within the area of the fort, three reused as spolia prior to deposition, and one apparently in situ from the site of the Roman bridge.

Inventory

RIB 1316: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / pro salu/te et victor/ia Augusti (‘For Jupiter Best and Greatest, for the health and victory of the Emperor’). Altar found in 1932 in extending the old county council offices. Source: RIB II p.435

RIB 1317: [I(ovi] O(ptimo) M(aximo) et / [Nu]mini [… / … / D]is Hospital(ibus) / …] S{…]AE / [… (‘For Jupiter Best and Greatest and for the Deity [of the Emperor…] and to the gods of hospitality…’). Altar found 1929 in the fort. Source: RIB II p.435

RIB 1318

RIB 1318

RIB 1318: Dea(bus) / Matribus Tramarinis / Patri(i)s Aurelius Iuvenalis / s(acrum) (‘For the mother goddesses of his native land across the sea, Aurelius Iuvenalis offered this’). Dedication found 1858 in Mitchell’s printers, cathedral churchyard. Source: RIB II p.436

RIB 1319

RIB 1319

RIB 1319: Neptuno le(gio) / VI Vi(ctrix) / P(ia) F(idelis) (‘For Neptune, the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (set this up)’). Altar found 1875 in north channel of Tyne during construction of the Swing Bridge. Source: RIB II p.436

RIB 1320

RIB 1320

RIB 1320: Ociano leg(io) / VI Vi(ctrix) / P(ia) F(idelis) (‘For Ocianus, the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (set this up)’). Altar found 1875 in north channel of Tyne during construction of the Swing Bridge. Source: RIB II pp.436–7

RIB 1321

RIB 1321

RIB 1321: D(e)o / Silvano / G(aius) Val(erius) / [… (‘For the god Silvanus, Gaius Valerius (set this up) …’). Altar found in 1843 in the Whitefriars Tower of the city wall. Source: RIB II p.437

RIB 1322

RIB 1322

RIB 1322: Imp(erator) Antoni/no Aug(usto) Pio p(atri) / pat(riae) vexil(l)atio / leg(ioni) II Aug(ustae) et leg(ioni) / VI Vic(trici) et leg(ioni) / XX V(aleriae) V(ictrici) con(t)r(i)/buti ex Ger(maniis) du/obus sub Iulio Ve/ro leg(ato) Aug(usti) pr(o) pr(aetore) (‘For the Emperor Antoninus Augustus Pius, father of the country, the vexillation contributed from the two Germanies under Iulius Verus, propraetorian legate of the Emperor, for the Second Legion Augusta, Sixth Legion Victrix, and Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix, (set this up)’). Dedication found 1903 dredging the north channel of the Tyne by the Swing Bridge. Source: RIB II p.437

RIB 3282: Matribus / [B]uc[c]io / [mi]les leg(ionis) / [XX V(aleriae) V(ictricis) / [… (‘For the mother goddesses, Buccio, soldier of the Twentieth Legion Valera Victrix…’). Altar found 1977 in excavations at the Castle. Source: RIB III p.282

RIB 3283: […]/cto ar[a]m / fecit [S]atu/rninus v(oto) s(oluto) / pro [se et suis] (‘…]cto Saturninus made the altar, fulfilling his vow for himself and his kin’). Altar found 1977 in excavations at the Castle. Source: RIB III p.283

RIB 3284: Iulia[e Aug(ustae)] / no[strae matri] / [Aug(usti) nostri M(arci) Au]/reli Anto[nini ac] / cas[tr(orum) ac sen(atus)] / ac pat(riae) [pro pietate] / ac dev[otione] / [curante G(aio) Iul(io) Marco] / leg(ato) Aug(usti) pr(o) [pr(aetore) coh(ors) I Ulpia] / Traiana C[ugernorum] / c(ivium) R(omanorum) [posuit] (‘For our Iulia Augusta, mother of our Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and of the camps and senate and country, from duty and loyalty, under [Gaius Iulius Marcus], the Emperor’s prpraetorian legate, the First Cohort of Cugerni Ulpia Traiana, Roman citizens, [(set this up)]’). Statue base found in 1979 in excavations in the Castle. Source: RIB III p.284

Analysis

Only one inscription (RIB 3284) relates to the likely garrison of the fort at Newcastle during the early 3rd century AD, the cohors I Ulpia Traiana Cugernorum c. R. (which differs from the unit mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum, the cohors I Cornoviorum). Of greater interest are the two altars (RIB 1319–20) recording the arrival by sea (dedications to Neptune and Ocean and reliefs of anchors and tridents give the game away) of part (or perhaps all) of legio VI Victrix, possibly around the time of Hadrian’s arrival in the province, and presumably to help build the Wall. These, together with the slab (RIB 1322) recording the arrival of reinforcements for the British legions in the 150s, all come from the Tyne near the likely site of the Roman bridge and suggest dedications fittingly set up over water and the fact that Newcastle (and not South Shields) was being used as a port of disembarkation for troops. Aurelius Iuvenalis’ wistful altar inscription (RIB 1318) may also hint at a sea crossing and it is tempting to see the legionary soldier [B]uc[c]io’s dedication (RIB 3282) in the same light (remembering RIB 1322), but a legionary garrison or detachment on the site at some point cannot be completely ruled out. Why that draft of legionaries should be brought into Newcastle, rather than further north (e.g. Cramond) or south (e.g. York), is anybody’s guess.

Hadrian’s Wall inscriptions (Wallsend to Newcastle)

Introduction


The inscriptions come from four locations, with all again having moved as spolia prior to deposition.

Inventory

The first four inscriptions were seen by Horsley at Cousin’s House (later Carville Hall), which has subsequently been built over.

RIB 1309

RIB 1309

RIB 1309: c(o)ho(rtis) I / c(enturia) Flori (‘First cohort, century of Florus’). Centurial stone seen in 1732 at Cousin’s House (Carville Hall), Wallsend. Source: RIB II p.433

RIB 1310: coh(ortis) II / c(enturia) Vari Celeri[s] (‘Second cohort, century of Varius Celer’). Centurial stone seen in 1732 at Cousin’s House (Carville Hall), Wallsend, now lost. Source: RIB II p.433

RIB 1311: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Senti / Prisci (‘Third cohort, century of Sentius Priscus’). Centurial stone seen in 1732 at Cousin’s House (Carville Hall), Wallsend. Source: RIB II p.433

RIB 1312: coh(ortis) X / c(enturia) Iustini / Secundi (‘Tenth cohort, century of Iustinus Secundus’). Centurial stone seen in 1732 at Cousin’s House (Carville Hall), Wallsend, now lost. Source: RIB II p.434

The next piece was seen built into an outbuilding at Stott’s House Farm.

RIB 1313: Imp… …co (?). Fragment seen in 1783 at Stott’s House Farm, Walker, now lost. Source: RIB II p.434

The only altar in this group comes from the likely site of Milecastle 3, on the eastern lip of the Ouse Burn valley.

RIB 1314

RIB 1314

RIB 1314: Iul(ius) Max/imus sac(erdos) / d(ei) I[…] / O[…] / pe[c{unia) sua] / cu[ravit] / […] (‘Iulius Maximus, priest of the god I[…] undertook from his own money…’). Altar found 1884 at the east end of Byker Bridge (probably from Milecastle 3). Source: RIB II p.434

The final building inscription comes from the valley of the Ouse Burn itself, re-used in the flint mill.

RIB 1315

RIB 1315

RIB 1315: c(enturia) Iuli Numisia/ni Ulpius Can/alius / et L(ucius) Goutius (‘century of Iulius Numisianus, Ulpius Canalius and Lucius Goutius (made this?)’). Building stone found in or before 1807 at Heaton flint mill. Source: RIB II pp.434–5

Analysis

These are almost exclusively centurial stones, originally built into the fabric of the curtain wall to mark the stints completed by various work gangs (the thinking is that a stone would be placed at either end of a stint). It is generally thought that these were only ever put into the south face of the wall, but a number are known in the north face (some quite low down), so the matter is still open for debate. In each case they usually record the name of the centurion, sometimes the number of the legionary cohort to which they belonged. Exceptionally, some (like RIB 1315) even mention names of those who erected them.

The altar from Milecastle 3 mentions a priest (sacerdos) and we know of  other examples in the Roman army, including priests of Jupiter Dolichenus. Altars are quite common finds at milecastles (we shall encounter several to Cocidius further to the west).