Linking to inscriptions in Clauss-Slaby

If you want to make a direct link to just one inscription in the magnificent Clauss-Slaby database, here’s a way to do it. I should point out I found this out ages ago (I know not where, sadly, so anonymous credit is due), lost it, then rediscovered it!

Tombstone of Classicianus

The information on the inscription is conveyed to the database in the format of

= corpus
B = year/volume
C = number

like this (note that the %20 is essential in each case to pass a ‘space’ character – you can’t have spaces in URLs).

db.edcs.eu/epigr/epi_einzel.php?s_sprache=en&p_belegstelle=A%20B,%20C

Thus the diploma listing units discharged in Britain in AD 122, CIL XVI, 69 is

db.edcs.eu/epigr/epi_einzel.php?s_sprache=en&p_belegstelle=CIL%2016,%2000069

Alternatively,  let’s try the inscription to Iulius Classicianus from London, AE 1936, 3

db.edcs.eu/epigr/epi_einzel.php?s_sprache=en&p_belegstelle=AE%201936,%2000003

All you need to do is form your URL in a text editor, copy it, and paste it into the address bar of your browser. You can even use a URL shortener on the resulting page for posting in Twitter.

Easy when you know how 😉

PLV Stanegate Inscriptions (Corbridge)

Introduction

Although Corbridge began in the 1st century AD as a standard military site with an attendant civilian presence, in the 2nd century it evolved into a civil site with a small, yet significant, military presence. Moreover, despite the proximity of Hadrian’s Wall, Corbridge was always more concerned with a) the crossing of the Tyne by Dere Street; b) access to Caledonia via Dere Street; and finally c) the Stanegate itself. Consequently, these three factors need to be borne in mind when considering its inscriptions.

The fact that a remote ecclesiastical site, Hexham, is a major source for inscriptions from the site reflects its proximity to Corbridge and the convenience of deriving worked stone from the Roman site. There is no guarantee that inscriptions from Hexham derive from Corbridge, but it is on balance more likely than any of the other nearby sites, such as Chesters, due to the monumental nature of both the architectural and textual contributions amongst the assemblage.

Inventory

RIB 1120: Apollini / Mapono / Q(uintus) Terentius / Q(uinti) f(ilius) Ouf(entina) / Firmus Saen(a) / praef(ectus) castr(orum) / leg(ionis) VI v(ictricis) p(iae) f(idelis) / d(onum) d(edit) (‘For Apollo Maponus Quintus Terentius Firmus, son of Quintus, of the Oufentina voting-tribe, camp prefect of the Sixth Legion Victrix, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found c.1866 near the SE corner of Hexham Abbey. Source: RIB I p.368

RIB 1121: [Ap]ollini / Mapon[o] / [Calpu]rnius / […] trib(unus) / dedicavit (‘For Apollo Maponus, Calpurnius … tribune dedicated this’). Altar found before 1724 used as the village cross in Corbridge. Source: RIB I p.368

RIB 1122: [Deo] / [M]apo[no] / Apo[llini] / P(ublius) Ae[…]/lus c(enturio) [leg(ionis) VI] / [V]ic(tricis) v(otum) [s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito)] (‘For the god Apollo Maponus, Publius Ae…lus, centurion of the Sixth Legion Victrix willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1732 in Hexham Abbey crypt. Source: RIB I p.369

RIB 1123: Deo / Arecurio / Apollinaris / Cassi v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the god Mercury, Apollinaris, son of Cassius, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Relief found 1936 on the NE side of Site 11. Source: RIB I p.370

RIB 1124

RIB 1124

RIB 1124: Ἀστ[άρ]της / βωμόν μ᾿/ ἐσορᾰς / Ποῠλχέρ μ᾿ / ἀνέθηκεν (‘You see me, an altar of Astarte, Pulcher set me up’). Altar found before 1754 ‘in the vicar’s glebe’. Source: RIB I p.370

RIB 1125: Concordi/ae leg(ionis) VI / Vi(ctricis) P(iae) F(idelis) et / leg(ionis) XX (‘For Harmony between the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis and the Twentieth Legion’). Dedication slab found in 1907 near N door of nave aisle of Hexham Abbey. Source: RIB I p.371

RIB 1126: Ara(m) / Dian(ae) / posui(t) / N[…] (‘N… set up an altar for Diana’). Altar found in 1939 in site clearance at Corbridge. Source: RIB I p.371

RIB 1127

RIB 1127

RIB 1127: Discipuli/nae / Augustorum / leg(io) / II / Aug(usta) (‘For the Discipline of the Emperors, the Second Legion Augusta (set this up)’). Statue base found in strongroom of W compound HQ at Corbridge in 1912. Source: RIB I p.371

RIB 1128: [Disci]p(linae) Augusto[rum?] / [milit]es coh(ortis) I V[ar]/[dullo]rum m(illiariae) [c(ivium) R(omanorum) eq(uitatae)] / [cui] praees[t Pub(lius)] / [Calpur]nius Vic[tor tr(ibunus)] (‘For the Discipline of the Emperors, soldiers of the First Cohort of Vardulli, one thousand strong, Roman citizens, part-mounted, which is commanded by Publius Calpurinius Victor, tribune, (set this up).’). Dedication slab found before 1821 in Hexham. Source: RIB I pp.371-2

RIB 1129

RIB 1129

RIB 1129: Ἡρακλεῐ / Τνρίω(ι) / Διοδώρα / ἀρχιέρια (‘For Heracles of Tyre, Diadora the priestess (set this up)’). Altar found before 1702 in Corbridge, moved to churchyard. Now in the British Museum. Source: RIB I p.372

RIB 1130

RIB 1130

RIB 1130: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / [p]ro salut[e] / [v]exillatio/num leg(ionum) XX [V(aleriae) v(ictricis)] / et VI vic(tricis) mi[lites] / [a]ge[n]t(es) in p[…] (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, for the well-being of a vexillation of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix and Sixth Legion Victrix, soldiers in garrison…’). Altar found 1886 in demolishing a cottage. Source: RIB I pp.372-3

RIB 1131

RIB 1131

RIB 1131: Iovi Aeterno / Dolicheno / et Caelesti / Brigantiae / et Saluti / C(aius) Iulius Ap/ol(l)inaris / |(centurio) leg(ionis) VI iuss(u) dei (‘For eternal Iupiter Dolichenus and Caelestis Brigantia and Salus, Gaius Iulius Apolinaris, centurion of the Sixth Legion, (set this up) at command of the god’). Altar found 1910 as a kerb stone S of Site 11. Source: RIB I p.373

RIB 1132: [Deo Marti] / Ul[tori vex(illatio) leg(ionis)] / VI [Vic(tricis) P(iae) F(idelis) sub] / Cn(aeo) Iul(io) [Vero leg(ato) Aug(usti)] / per L(ucium) O[…] / trib(unum) [militum] (‘… a detachment of the Sixth Legion Pia Fidelis under Gnaeus Iulius Verus, governor, through Lucius O…, military tribune’). Statue base found in 1908 near Site 11. Source: RIB I pp.373-4

RIB 1133: [D]e[o] / Merc(urio) (‘For the god Mercury’). Fragment of a relief found in 1940 S of the E granary. Source: RIB I p.374

RIB 1134: Deae M[inervae] / T(itus) Tertini[us …] / libr(arius) ex [voto pos(uit)] (‘For the goddess Minerva Titus Tertinius … clerk, set this up in accordance with a vow’). Statuette base found 1804 on the W part of the Roman site. Source: RIB I p.374

RIB 1135: B(ona) F(ortuna) / deae / Pantheae / [… (‘For the good fortune of the goddess Panthea…’). Altar found 1913 in the E granary. Source: RIB I p.374

RIB 1136: Deo san(cto) Silvan[o] / [milite]s vexil/[lat(ionis) leg(ionis)] II Aug(ustae) et c[ol]/[le]g[ium] Si[l]vaniano/rum aram de suo pos(uerunt) / vol(entes) lib(entes) (‘For the sacred god Silvanus, soldiers of the detachment of the Second Legion Augusta and the cavalry unit of… freely and willingly gave this altar from their own resources’). Altar found at Orchard (Hole) Farm before 1865. Source: RIB I pp.374-5

RIB 1137

RIB 1137

RIB 1137: [[Soli Invicto]] / vexillatio / leg(ionis) VI Vic(tricis) P(iae) F(idelis) f(ecit) / sub cura Sex(ti) / Calpurni Agrico/lae leg(ati) Aug(usti) pr(o) pr(aetore) (‘[[For the Invincible Sun]], a detachment of the Sixth Legion Victrix built this under the governor Sextus Calpurnius Agricola’). Dedication slab found in 1911 in the roadway S of Site 11. Source: RIB I p.375

RIB 1138: Victoriae / Aug(ustae) / L(ucius) Iul(ius) Iuli[anus] / […]us [… (‘For the Victory of the Emperor, Lucius Iulius Iulianus…’). Altar found before 1732 in a cottage near The Hermitage E of the confluence of the N and S Tynes. Source: RIB I p.376

RIB 1139: Deo / Veteri (‘For the god Veteris’). Altar found E of Site 11 in 1936. Source: RIB I p.376

RIB 1140: Deo / Vit/iri (‘For the god Vitiris’). Altar found during Wm Coulson’s excavations on the N bridge abutment in 1862. Source: RIB I p.376

RIB 1141: Vit(eri) / M/iti(us?) (‘For Viteris, Mitius (set this up)’). Altar found 1939 in road E of Site 39. Source: RIB I p.376

RIB 1142: LEG() A[…] / Q(uintus) Calpurnius / Concessini/us praef(ectus) eq(uitum) / caesa Cori/onototar/um manu pr/aesentissimi / numinis dei v(otum) s(olvit) (‘Quintus Calpurnius Concessinius, prefect of cavalry, after killing a band of Corionototae, fulfilled a vow to the most effective spirit of the god’). Altar found 1725 in the crypt at Hexham Abbey. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.376

RIB 1143: …]sit […] / […]norus / [… pr]aep(ositus) cu/[ram] agens / horr(eorum) tempo/[r]e expeditio/nis felicissi(mae) / Brittannic(ae) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘…praepositus placed in charge of the granaries at the time of the Most Fortunate British Expedition willingly and freely fulfilled a vow’). Altar found in the W granary in 1908. Source: RIB I pp.376-7

RIB 1144: …] / L[eg(io) …] (‘… legion…’). Pedestal found 1907 E of Site 8 fountain. Source: RIB I p.377

RIB 1145: VMD (‘?’). Altar found 1908 on Site 11. Source: RIB I p.377

RIB 1146: ? (‘?’). Altar fragment (illegible) in Corbridge church yard. Source: RIB I p.378

RIB 1147

RIB 1147

RIB 1147: [Imp(eratori)] T(ito) Aelio / Anionino [Au]g(usto) Pio II co(n)s(uli) / sub cura Q(uinti) Lolii Urbici / [leg(ati) A]ug(usti) pr(o) pr(aetore) leg(io) II Aug(usta) f(ecit) (‘For the Emperor Titus Aelius Antoninus Augustus Pius, twice consul, under the charge of Quintus Lollius Urbicus, propraetorian Emperor’s legate, the Second Legiuon Augusta built this’). DEdication found 1935 in W granary. Source: RIB I p.378

RIB 1148

RIB 1148

RIB 1148: Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) [T(ito)] Ael[io] / Antonino A[ug(usto)] Pi[o] / III co(n)[s(uli) p(atri) p(atriae)] / sub cura Q(uinti) [Lolli Urbici] / leg(ati) Au[g(usti) pr(o) pr(aetore)] / leg(io) II A[ug(usta) fecit] (‘For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Antoninus Augustus Pius, thrice consul, father of his country, under the charge of Quintus Lollius Urbicus, propraetorian Emperor’s legate, the Second Legion Augusta built this’). Dedication found 1907 in E granary. Source: RIB I pp.378-9

RIB 1149

RIB 1149

RIB 1149: Imperato[ribus Caesaribus] / M(arco) Aurelio A[ntonino Aug(usto) tribuniciae] / potestati[s XVII] co(n)s(uli) [III et L(ucio) Aur/elio Vero Aug(usto)] A[rmeniaco trib/uniciae potestati]s I[II] co[(n)s(uli)] II / [vexillatio leg(ionis) XX] V(aleriae) V(ictricis) fecit su[b c]ura / [Sexti Calpurni] Agrico[l]ae / [legati Augustoru]m pr(o) pr(aetore) (‘For the Emperors Caesars Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, with tribunician power for the 17th time, consul thrice, and Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus Armeniacus, with tribunician power for the 3rd time, consul twice, a detachment of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix built this under the charge of Sextus Calpurnius Agricola, Emperor’s propraetorian legate’). Fragmentary dedication found in three separate locations in 1702, 1912, and 1938. Source: RIB I p.379

RIB 1150: I[mp(eratori) (‘For the Emperor…’). Fragment of a dedication found on the site of the W gate of the fort at Corbridge in 1953. Source: RIB I p.380

RIB 1151: Imp(erator) Caes(ar) L(ucius) Sep(timius) [S]everus Pi(us) / Pertinax et Imp(erator) C[a]esar M(arcus) / Aur(elius) Antoninu[s] Pius Aug/usti [[et P(ublius) Septi[mi]us Geta]] / [[Caesar]] horre[u]m [per] / vexillatione[m leg(ionis) …] / fecerunt su[b L(ucio) Alfeno] / [Senecione leg(ato) Aug(ustorum) pr(o) pr(aetore)] (‘For the Emperor Caesar Lucius Septimius Severeus Pius Pertinax and Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Augustus and Publius Septimius Geta Caesar built this granary through the agency of the … Legion under Lucius Alfenus Senecio, Emperor’s pro praetorian legate’). Dedication found a) in 1725 in the Anglo-Saxon crypt and b) in 1907 in the Anglo-Saxon NW tower at Hexaham Abbey. Source: RIB I pp.380-1

RIB 1152

RIB 1152

RIB 1152: …]CA[…] / [Tere]ntio (?) Paulin[o p(rae)p(osito)] / [a]g(ente) in praeten[tura] (‘…Terentius Paulinus, commander, on frontier garrison duty…’). Dedication slab found 1902 at Corbow (Roman Corbridge). Source: RIB I p.381

RIB 1153

RIB 1153

RIB 1153: Imperatorib(us) / Caesaribus / [M(arco) A]urelio An/[tonino et (‘For the Emperor-Caesars Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and…’). Dedication slab found 1902 at Corbow (Roman Corbridge). Source: RIB I p.381

RIB 1154

RIB 1154

RIB 1154: Vexillus / leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) (‘detachment of the Second Legion Augusta’). Decorative slab found at Corbridge in the E granary in 1907. Source: RIB I pp.381-2

RIB 1155

RIB 1155

RIB 1155: Leg(ionis) II / Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) III f(ecit) (‘Second Legion Augusta, Third Cohort built this’). Building stone found at Corbridge, probably in 1755. Source: RIB I p.382

RIB 1156

RIB 1156

RIB 1156: Leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) III (‘Second Legion Augusta the Third Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found in 1883 in the Cor Burn W of Corbridge. Source: RIB I p.382

RIB 1157: Leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) IIII f(ecit) (‘Second Legion Augusta the Fourth Cohort built this’). Building stone found 1711 reused in the NE corner of Corbridge church. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.382

RIB 1158: …]ce / [leg(io) II Au]g(usta) / [fec(it)] (‘… the Second Legion Augusta (built this)’). Building stone found before 1855 at Corbridge, now built into shop W of marketplace. Source: RIB I pp.382-3

RIB 1159: Leg(io) / VI Vic(trix) / fe[c(it)] (‘the Sixth Legion Victrix built this’). Building stone found 1937 W of Site 39. Source: RIB I p.383

RIB 1160: Leg(io) VI Vic(trix) P(ia) F(idelis) (‘The Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (built this)’). Building stone found 1829 at Corbridge. Source: RIB I p.383

RIB 1161: Instante / Fl(avio) Hygin(o) / c(enturione) leg(ionis) VI v(ictricis) (‘Under the direction of Flavius Hyginus, centurion of the Sixth Legion Victrix’). Building stone found in the chapter house of Hexham Abbey. Source: RIB I p.383

RIB 1162: Legio(nis) VI / pi(a)e f(idelis) vex(illatio) / refe(cit) (‘A detachment of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis rebuilt this’). Building stone found 1856 at the junction of Stagshaw Bank and Cow Lane. Source: RIB I p.383

RIB 1163: Vexi[llatio] / leg(ionis) V[I vic(tricis) p(iae) f(idelis)] / sub c[ura Viri] / Lup[i v(iri) c(larissimi) co(n)s(ularis)] (‘A detachment of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis under the command of Virius Lupus, of senatorial status and of consular rank (built this)’). Dedication slab found 1912 in the strongroom of Site 45. Source: RIB I p.384

RIB 1164: [Le]g(io) / XX V(aleria) V(ictrix) / [fec]it (‘The Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix built this’). Building stone found 1907 on Site 8. Source: RIB I p.384

RIB 1165: [Leg(io)] XX V(aleria) [v(ictrix)] / [fec]it (‘The Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix built this’). Building stone found 1907 on Site 8. Source: RIB I p.384

RIB 1166

RIB 1166

RIB 1166: Leg(ionis) XX V(aleriae) v(ictricis) / coh(ors) VII (‘Twentieth/Thirtieth Legion Valeria/Ulpia Victrix Seventh Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found 1912 near Site 45. Source: RIB I p.384

RIB 1167

RIB 1167

RIB 1167: c(enturia) Tu(lli) Cap(i)t(onis) / coh(ortis) VI / QD de(dit) (‘The century of Tullius Capito, Sixth Cohort, QD gave this’). Building stone found 1940 between apsidal building and Site 40S. Source: RIB I p.385

RIB 1168: …] / C[… (‘… C…’). Dedication slab found 1912 on Site 39 or 40. Source: RIB I p.385

RIB 1169: coh(ortis) VIIII c(enturia) Ma/rci Coma(ti) (‘Ninth Cohort, the century of Marcius Comatus (built this)’). Centurial stone found in 1885, now built into W end of nave of Hexham Abbey. Source: RIB I p.385

RIB 1170: Iulian/us (‘Iulianus’). Building stone found on Site 43. Source: RIB I p.385

RIB 1171

RIB 1171

RIB 1171: [D(is)] M(anibus) / [Ba]rathes Pal/myrenus vexil(l)a(rius) / vixit an(n)os LXVIII (‘For the immortal shades, Barathes the Palmyrene, a vexillarius, lived 68 years’). Tombstone found 1910 reused in flooring on Site 23. Source: RIB I p.385

RIB 1172

RIB 1172

RIB 1172: Dis Manibus / Flavinus / eq(ues) alae Petr(ianae) signifer / tur(ma) Candidi an(norum) XXV / stip(endiorum) VII h(ic) s(itus) (‘For the immortal shades, the cavalryman Flavinus of the ala Petriana, a standard-bearer in the turma of Candidus, lived 25 years, served 7, lies here’). Tombstone found 1881 in the foundations of the porch of the S transept of Hexham Abbey. Source: RIB I p.386

RIB 1173: D(is) [M(anibus)] / [I]ul(io) Ca[ndi]/do Da[..] / h(eres) f(aciendum) [c(uravit)] (‘For the immortal shades, Iulius Candidus, Da.. his heir had this set up’). Tombstone found before 1929 in the vicarage stable at Corbridge. Source: RIB I p.386

RIB 1174: D(is) M(anibus) / Iul(ius) Primus / con[iu]gi c(arissimae) / p(onendum) c(uravit) (‘For the immortal shades, Iulius Firmus, set this up for his most dear wife’). Tombstone found 1895 at Trinity Terrace. Source: RIB I p.387

RIB 1175: L(ucio) Val(erio) Ius[t]o / mil(iti) leg(ionis) VI / Egn(atius) Dyonysi/us et Sur(ius) Ius/[t]us her(edes) f(aciendum) c(uraverunt) (‘Lucius Valerius Iustus, soldier of the Sixth Legion Victrix, his heirs Egnatius Dionysius and Surius Iustus, set this up’). Tombstone found 1802 on W part of Roman Corbridge. Source: RIB I p.387

RIB 1176: [Dis] / [Manibus] / Ti[b(eri) …] / Pa[… (‘For the immortal shades, Tiberius …’). Tombstone found before 1883 in a wall on the NW side of Bridge market place. Source: RIB I p.387

RIB 1177: D(is) M(anibus) / miles / leg(ionis) II [Aug(ustae)] / [… (‘For the immortal shades, a soldier of the Second Legion Augusta …’). Tombstone found before 1907 in the Vicar’s Pele in Corbridge. Source: RIB I p.387

RIB 1178: … em]erit[o ex e]q(uite) alae […] / […]ae / [… (‘…emeritus, formerly cavalryman in the … ala‘). Tombstone fragment found 1886 in Corbridge church. Source: RIB I p.388

RIB 1179: …]icinicivi […]/rauthus et […]/arfaiaucus [et …] / […] et Scu[…] / […]co [… (‘?’). Tombstone fragment found before 1860 E of The Seal in Heexham. Source: RIB I p.388

RIB 1180

RIB 1180

RIB 1180: D(is) M(anibus) / Ahteh(a)e / fil(iae) Nobilis / vixit an(n)is / V (‘For the immortal shades, Ahteha, daughter of Nobilis, lived 5 years’). Tombstone found reused in late road S of Site 11. Source: RIB I pp.388-9

RIB 1181

RIB 1181

RIB 1181: D(is) M(anibus) / Sudrenus / Ertol(a)e nomine / Vellibia felicissi/m(a)e vixit an(n)is IIII / diebus LX (‘For the immortal shades, Sudrenus (set this up) for Ertola, called Velibia, she lived most happily for 4 years and 60 days’). Tombstone found reused in late road S of Site 11. Source: RIB I p.389

RIB 1182: Iulia Mate[r]/na an(norum) VI Iul(ius) / Marcellinus / filiae carissimae (‘Iulia Materna lived 6 years, Iulius Marcellinus for his dearest daughter (set this up)’). Tombstone found about 1861 in the W end of Corbridge church. Source: RIB I p.389

RIB 1183

RIB 1183

RIB 1183: [D(is) M(anibus)] s(acrum) / [… (‘For the immortal shades, sacred …’). Tombstone fragment found in 1910 in topsoil S of Site 11. Source: RIB I p.389

RIB 1184: D(is) M(anibus) / Mo[… (‘For the immortal shades…’). Tombstone found 1911 on Site 29. Source: RIB I p.389

RIB 1185: […]llon(ius) Lu/[…]cius (‘?’). Building stone found 1907 on Site 5 (40). Source: RIB I p.390

RIB 1186: [Coh(ors) I(?)] / Ling(onum) / Iliom/[arus? (‘First Cohort of Lingones, Iliomarus…’). Building stone found in 1910 E of Site 11. Source: RIB I p.390

RIB 1187: …]IVS BA[…] / […]X A[…] / […]VB IRA[…] / […]ANIVI[…] / […] EFMATER[… (‘?’). Tombstone fragment in W tower of Corbridge church found in 1886. Source: RIB I p.390

RIB 1188: …] / BIS I[…] / VAL[… (‘?’). Dedication slab fragment found before 1730. Source: RIB I p.390

RIB 1189: …] D(e) s(uo) [p(osuit?)] (‘… set this up from his own resources.’). Slab found 1942 in aqueduct north of Site 8. Source: RIB I p.391

RIB 1190: …]IE[…] / […]TITICIA[…] / […]VI BRIV[…] / […]TAE […] / […] L(egio) VI Vic(tri…) F (‘… Sixth Legion Victrix …’). ?Building stone found 1760 at Corbridge, now lost. Source: RIB I p.391

RIB 1191: Le(gio) [… (‘… legion …’). Panel fragment found 1934 on Site 39. Source: RIB I p.391

RIB 1192: NI (‘?’). Gutter stone found in 1911, now lost. Source: RIB I p.391

RIB 1193: …]O NO [… (‘?’). Inscription found in Hexham Abbey crypt around 1887, now lost. Source: RIB I p.391

RIB 1194: …]VE[I… (‘?’). Fragment found 1911 at Corbridge, now lost. Source: RIB I p.391

RIB 1195: Vic[…] (‘?’). Building stone found at Corbridge 1906-14. Source: RIB I p.391

RIB 1196: a) VII // VIII // XV(?) // XVIII // XX b) X / VIII // X / IIIIV (‘7, 8, 15(?), 18, 20 10/8, 10/9(?)’). Voussirs found 1908 at Corbridge on Site 11, now lost. Source: RIB I p.392

RIB 1197: VIIII (‘9’). Building stone found at Corbridge 1906-14. Source: RIB I p.392

RIB 3293: VO[…] / […]Ael[…] (‘…]Ael(ius?)[…’). Altar found 1994 in Town Field during building work. Source: RIB III p.291

RIB 3294: Aurelius / M[… (‘Aurelius …’). Slab fragment found before 1964. Source: RIB III p.292

RIB 3295: a) …] […]R […] / […]O ❧ b) C (‘?’). Slab identified 1971 on a stone from the W granary. Source: RIB III p.292

Analysis

Corbridge is one of the few sites in the Hadrian’s Wall region where history and archaeology collide head-on. This is a product of its strategic location – at the junction of the Stanegate and Dere Street, just by a major Tyne crossing – and the intensive campaign of excavation that began in 1906 and continued, with interruptions, until 1980.

The religious dedications give us a good idea of just how cosmopolitan a place Corbridge was. The deities represented include Apollo Maponus (1120-2), Mercury (1123, 1133), Astarte (1124, in Greek), Diana (1126), Minerva (1134), Heracles of Tyre (1129, also in Greek), Jupiter (1130-1), Mars Ultor (1132), Panthea (1135), Silvanus (1136), Sol Invictus (1137), and Veteris (1139-41). More militarily derived deities include Concordia (1125), Discip(u)lina (1127-8), and Victoria (1136). Notable by their absence are Cocidius and Mithras. The presence of pairs of legionary detachments in the compounds south of the Stanegate is most poignantly indicated by that dedication to Concordia (‘harmony’) between the Sixth and Twentieth Legions, but it is difficult to interpret that in any other way than the most pessimistic and see it as indicative as extreme rivalry, if not outright conflict, between the two detachments.

The various building inscriptions tell us something of what was happening to Corbridge as it developed from a turf and timber fort with a small associated civil settlement into a town with a legionary enclave. The Second Legion Augusta are seen rebuilding the stone granaries in AD 139–40 (11478), whilst a building inscription of AD 163–6 (1137) includes a (deleted) dedication to Sol Invictus by a detachment of the Sixth Legion, building under Calpurnius Agricola, possibly the occasion when construction of Site 11 began. The same legion is mentioned in other inscriptions (1159-63) and we know the Twentieth Legion constructed the ornamental fountain (Site 8) next to the granaries (1164) and they are recorded elsewhere (1165–7). The Second Legion Augusta is represented by a dedication on a statue base (1127) and a relief (1154) depicting their vexillus (sic), as well as on various building stones (11558). Severus’ northern campaign is reflected in an inscription set up by a praepositus in charge of granaries during ‘the Most Fortunate British Expedition’ (1143) and the construction of a granary by a legionary detachment (1151). We may also note in passing a building stone (1186) from a cohort (possibly the First) of Lingones (the First were at High Rochester in the Antonine period and Lanchester in the 3rd century).

Finally, the tombstones reveal some of the inhabitants to us. From its days as a fort, the tombstone of Flavinus (1172) is a fine example of the Reiter type of relief, with a cavalryman of the ala Petriana riding down a cowering barbarian. The tombstone of Barathes, a standard bearer (vexillarius), often equated with the husband of Regina, recorded on a tombstone (RIB 1065) from South Shields. The stone of a lefionary of the Sixth Legion (1175) has heirs with distinctly eastern-sounding names, possibly reflecting a sojourn in the East during the Antonine period for that unit, perhaps also attested in the dedication to Sol Invictus (1137). The civil population is highlighted by three child tombstones from the site, one each of 6 (1182), 5 (1180), and 4 years old (1181), all little girls.

The PLV eboojs

PLV Inscriptions of Hadrian’s Wall

Mapping the inscriptions of the Wall

For the last year or so, PLV has been tweeting and blogging the geolocated inscriptions of Hadrian’s Wall, revealing something of their spatial, social, and historical context. As we went on our merry way, they were mapped in chunks onto Google Maps. However, when it comes to showing you a map of all of them, it is not so easy.

Google Maps LiteGoogle Maps only allows a certain number of placemarkers on the screen at any one time. Their new Map Engine Lite will allow all of them on the screen (see above) but cannot be embedded here on wordpress.com, so that image is just a screenshot.

GeocommonsLikewise, Geocommons, which provides a really stylish map, cannot be embedded here. However, both can be embedded on the sister Per Lineam Valli atlas website, so they have been put there and you will have to content yourselves with these screenshots.

Mural epigraphy

Think of the inscriptions of Hadrian’s Wall as being like those plastic ducks (and other buoyant bath-time fun chums) that were washed overboard from a container ship in 1992. They are markers. The ducks revealed the subtleties of worldwide ocean currents, and the inscriptions from the Wall zone reveal how that former frontier defence has been spread around the landscape. Field walls, farm buildings, religious houses, and outbuildings all have their fair share of these manuports.* I am frequently asked where Hadrian’s Wall has gone and my standard response is that it is still all around, just slightly rearranged.

RIB 1428

RIB 1428

Of course, they are also an invaluable primary record of the activities of the people of Roman Britain. Their accomplishments, lives, and loves are writ large on the local stone. Like the roughly squared facing stones of the Wall themselves, they are competent, if not outstanding, in their execution. Some are touchingly crude, whilst others are haughtily formal. Before the Vindolanda Tablets became a much-loved treasure, these were the nearest we got to knowing how the local people around the Wall thought and communicated. The stilted, formal phraseology contrasted with the struggles with spelling and grammar that are so often evident.

RIB 2003

RIB 2003

The back-breaking labour of constructing the Wall is relayed to us in the abrupt shorthand of the centurial stones, whilst the observances of the military calendar of the garrison units is conveyed through countless commanding officers dedicating altars to the standard, and some not-so-standard, deities. At the same time, the superstitions of the population are hinted at in offerings to minor deities. The ethnic mix of the Wall population is also clear to see, both in names, places of origin, and deities worshipped.

RIB 1444

RIB 1444

It is also worth recalling what we do not have. The organic epigraphy from the initial construction of the Turf Wall is one of the major missing components. One tiny fragment of a monumental inscription on wood survives from Milecastle 50TW, hinting at what is missing from 30 miles on the western side of the Tyne-Solway isthmus. At the very least, that is 60 milecastle and 24 fort gateway inscriptions, as well as all the intervening centurial records (if they too were in timber). The archaeological record is inevitably biased towards stone inscriptions, but it also presents us with the occasional ‘uninscribed’ item, such as the milestone still to be seen to the west of Great Chesters fort. Finds from Jordan show us that milestones could have painted inscriptions alone and the date distribution of British examples (largely 3rd to 4th century AD) suggests they may also have been just painted in this manner in the first two centuries after the Roman invasion and not inscribed into the surface of the stone until later.

Uninscribed milestone west of Great Chesters

Uninscribed milestone west of Great Chesters

So, with these things in mind, head out to one of the museums where you can see some Hadrian’s Wall inscriptions and let the Romans talk to you.

Chesters museum

Chesters museum

Museums

You can find some goodly chunks of mural epigraphy at a number of museums:

Whilst you’re at it, why not pop into Vindolanda and the Roman Army Museum at Carvoran to give yourself some background context?

Postscript

Until now, users of RIB have had to content themselves with the hard-to-obtain hardback books or some rather indifferent texts on the web. Now a full online version is in preparation. I have seen it and it is gorgeous, does lots of things a book just can’t do (calm down, book fetishists!), and promises to be an invaluable tool to all lovers of epigraphy. Hold yourselves in readiness …

* A manuport is something that has been carried away from its place of origin by hand. Thus each stone of Hadrian’s Wall starts out as a manuport, having been brought from a nearby quarry, but then has to suffer the further indignity of being moved again when reused, and yet again when carted off to a museum!

The PLV eboojs

PLV Inscriptions (Bowness-on-Solway)

Introduction

In our final tranche of inscriptions from Hadrian’s Wall, we meet the commander of one of the garrison units.

Inventory

RIB 2056: Deo Belato/cairo Peisi/us m(iles) solv/it votu/m l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the god Belatucadrus, Peisius Marcus willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1873 at Kirkbride. Source: RIB I p.630

RIB 2057

RIB 2057

RIB 2057: I(ovi) O(ptimo) M(aximo) / pro salute / dd(ominorum) nn(ostrorum) Galli / et Volusiani / Augg(ustorum) Sulpicius / Secundian/us trib(unus) coh(ortis) / [p]osuit (‘For Iupiter Best and Greatest, for the welfare of our lords the emperors Gallus and Volusianus, Sulpicius Secundianus, cohort tribune, set this up’). Altar found in 1739 SW of the fort, now built into a farm building just outside the E gate. Source: RIB I p.630

RIB 2058: …] / DD(ominorum) nn(ostrorum) G[alli et] / Volusian[i Augg(ustorum)] / Sulpicius S[ecun]/dianus trib(unus) / [coh(ortis)] posuit (‘…our lords the emperors Gallus and Volusianus, Sulpicius Secundianus, cohort tribune, set this up’). Altar found before 1872 built into a cattle shed at Herd Hill. Source: RIB I p.630

RIB 2059: [Matribus deabus aed]em / [Ant]onianus dedico / [se]d date ut fetura quaestus / suppleat votis fidem / aureis sacrabo carmen / mox viritim litteris (‘(For the mother goddesses), I Antonianus dedicate this shrine, but grant that the increase of the venture confirms my prayers and I shall soon adorn each letter of this poem individually with gold’). Dedication slab found before 1791 at Bowness. Source: RIB I pp.630-1

RIB 2060: a) …] MARC AVRELLIVS / IMPERA TRIVMPH / PERSA[… b) …] MARC AVREL / PHILO [… (‘?’). Two fragments found before 1601 at Bowness. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.631

RIB 2061: Legio / VI V(ictrix) P(ia) / F(idelis) f(ecit) (‘The Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Building stone found in 1739 at Bowness. Source: RIB I p.632

Analysis

There are two inscriptions (2057-8) set up by Sulpicius Secundianus, the tribune in charge of the double-strength infantry cohort based at Bowness in AD251-3. Unfortunately, he did not mention which unit he was commanding. The Notitia Dignitatum is no help as it does not include Maia (Bowness) in its list of commands per lineam valli. Otherwise, we are left wondering whether Antonianus ever gilded the lettering on his altar (2059). It survives (in Tullie House Museum & Art Gallery) and seems decidedly gold-free. Must have been a bad year after all.

PLV Inscriptions (Drumburgh to Bowness-on-Solway)

Introduction

One building stone and one altar are the meagre pickings from this stretch.

Inventory

RIB 2054

RIB 2054

RIB 2054: leg(ionis) II Aug(ustae) / coh(ors) III (‘Second Legion Augusta Third Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found before 1783 at Glasson. Source: RIB I p.629

RIB 2055

RIB 2055

RIB 2055: Matri/bus suis / milite[s] / [… (‘For their own mother goddesses, the soldiers…’). Altar found before 1834 SE of Bowness. Now built into farm building in village. Source: RIB I p.629

Analysis

We find the Second Legion building the Stone Wall here (2054), presumably during the initial replacement of the Turf Wall, whilst the altar for the mother goddesses now at Port Carlisle (2055) probably comes from the nearby Milecastle 79.

PLV Inscriptions (Drumburgh)

Introduction

Time and erosion have deprived us of the inscriptions on the two Roman altars that stand outside Drumburgh Castle, but there are a few legible inscriptions from the site.

Inventory

RIB 2051: coh(ors) VII (‘the Seventh Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found before 1874 in the gable of a stable opposite Drumburgh Castle. Source: RIB I pp.628-9

RIB 2052: coh(ors) VIII (‘the Eighth Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found in 1783 in a house in Drumburgh. Source: RIB I p.629

RIB 2053

RIB 2053

RIB 2053: Pedatura / Vindo/moruci (‘Length (built by) Vindomorucus’). Building stone found in 1859 at Drumburgh. Source: RIB I p.629

Analysis

The two stones erected by the Seventh and Eighth Cohorts (2051-2) must date to the replacement of the turf fort with the stone one (although it is possible they may equally derive from the curtain wall). The stone (2053) recording work by the Vindomoruci (presumably from the area around Vindomora, modern Ebchester in County Durham) on the other hand probably belongs to the Severan rebuild, when tribal levies are found at work.

PLV Inscriptions (Burgh-by-Sands to Drumburgh)

Introduction

The paucity of inscriptions from this stretch probably reflects the fact that some three miles of the Wall across Burgh Marsh have never been detected and may not have been available to be robbed for building stone. It is difficult to believe that there were any fewer inscriptions here than elsewhere along Hadrian’s Wall.

Inventory

RIB 2049: ICI[..] / […]I[.] / […]II[..] (‘?’). Building stone found before 1732 in Burgh by Sands. Source: RIB I p.628

RIB 2050

RIB 2050

RIB 2050: Matri(bus) / dom(esticis) / vex(illatio) / [l]eg(ionis) VI / [V(ictricis)] P(iae) F(idelis) (‘For the household mother goddesses a detachment of the Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis (set this up)’). Altar found 1830 at Dykesfield, SW of MC73. Source: RIB I p.628

Analysis

With only two inscriptions available from the Burgh-nbby-Sands to Drumburgh stretch, and only one of those (2050) legible, it is difficult to draw conclusions about this particular epigraphic corpus. It is interesting to note that the Sixth Legion appear to be viewing the mother goddesses in much the same way as the Lares and Penates, in a domestic role. This altar was found near Milecastle 73, just east of Burgh Marsh, and once more may reflect a legionary detachment acting in a garrison role.