73. How is the course of Hadrian’s Wall visible when it is not still standing?

The course of the curtain wall can be followed in a variety of ways. Within Newcastle, property frontages are aligned on the north face of the curtain wall. To the west of the city, from around MC8 to MC32, for the most part it is incorporated in the foundations of the Military Road. In the central sector, from around MC34 to just after MC45, the curtain wall is either standing, used as a foundation for stone field boundaries, or occasionally appears as an upstanding earthwork comprising the wall, debris from its collapse, and soil that may have formed over it. In the western sector, it is largely marked by field boundaries, often with a low earthwork beneath a hedge or stone wall.

The course of the ditch is usually visible as some form of depression, whilst the Vallum, being an earthwork, can be either upstanding to some degree or, in arable areas, levelled but still visible as a cropmark in the right conditions.

Further reading: Symonds and Mason 2009