9. Where was the stone for Hadrian’s Wall quarried?

Stone was quarried as near as possible to where it was needed. In the central sector, this was quite close, often less than 2km, since the nature of the geology meant that there were bands of sandstone and limestone immediately south of the Whin Sill which provided the raw materials for the walling and mortar. West of the Red Rock Fault, the Romans had to go further to find sandstone. In the case of Pigeon Crag and Gelt, those quarries were more than 4.5km south-east of the nearest stretch of the Wall.

Further reading: Breeze and Dobson 2000; Hill 2006