PLV Inscriptions (Carrawburgh)

Introduction

Whilst the limited excavations at the fort have produced only a small haul of inscriptions, the various shrines in the civil settlement, notably Coventina’s Well and the mithraeum, have been extremely productive.

Inventory

RIB 1520: ? (‘?’). Altar found 1941 at Uppertown but inscription (if there is one) is concealed. Source: RIB I p.485

RIB 1521: Deo / Belleti/cauro / Lunaris (‘For the god Belleticaurus, Lunaris (set this up)’). Altar found in 1849 at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.485

RIB 1522

RIB 1522

RIB 1522: Deae / Coventi/nae Bellicus / v(otum) s(oluit) l(ibens) m(erito) p(osuit) (‘For the goddess Coventina, Bellicus set this up, willingly and deservedly fulfilling a vow’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.485

RIB 1523

RIB 1523

RIB 1523: De(ae) Conve(n)ti(nae) / vot(um) ret(t)u/lit Maus(aeus) / optio c(o)ho(rtis) / p(rimae) Frixiav(onum) (‘For the goddess Coventina, Musaeus optio of the First Cohort of Frixiavones paid a vow’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.485

RIB 1524

RIB 1524

RIB 1524: Deae Co/ventin(a)e / coh(orti) I Cube/rnorum / Aur(elius) Camp/ester / v(otum) p(osuit) l(ibens) a(nimo) (‘For the goddess Coventina, Aurelius Campester from the First Cohort of Cuberni set up a votive offering with a glad heart’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.485

RIB 1525

RIB 1525

RIB 1525: Die Cove/ntine A/urelius / Crotus / German(us) (‘For the goddess Coventina, Aurelius Crotus, A German (fulfilled a vow)’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.486

RIB 1526

RIB 1526

RIB 1526: Deae Nim/fae Coven/tine Mad/uhus Germ(anus) / pos(uit) pro se et su(is) / v(otum) s(olvens) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the nymph goddess Coventina, Maduhus, a German, set this up for himself and his own, willingly and deservedly fulfilling a vow’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.486

RIB 1527: [Ni]mphae Coventinae / […]tianus dec[u]ri(o) / […]SLE[.]V / […] m(erito) (‘For the nymph Coventina, […]tianus, decurion… deservedly [fulfilled a vow]’). Dedication found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.486

RIB 1528

RIB 1528

RIB 1528: D(e)ae Coven(tinae) / Vinomath/us v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the goddess Coventina Vinomathus willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.487

RIB 1529

RIB 1529

RIB 1529: Deae Coven/tine P[…]a/nus m(i)l(es) c(o)ho(rtis) [… / .TTOIN… / .] / votum [li]/bes animo / r(eddidit) et posivit (‘For the goddess Coventina p[…]anus soldier of cohort […] willingly paid a vow and set this up’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.487

RIB 1530

RIB 1530

RIB 1530: C(o)v(entinae) / (Au)g(u)st(ae) / Sa/tu/r/ni(nus) Gabin/ius f(ecit) or Gabin/ius Fe/li/cis Sa/tu/r/ni(nus) (‘For Coventina Augusta, Saturninus Gabinius made this, or, For Good Luck, Saturninus Gabinius’). Clay incense burner found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.487

RIB 1531

RIB 1531

RIB 1531: Cove(n)/tina(e) A(u)/gusta(e) / votu(m) / man/ibus suis / Satu/rni/nus / fecit / Gabi/nius (‘For Coventina Augusta, Saturninus Gabinius made this votive offering with his own hands’). Clay incense burner found in Coventina’s Well in 1876. Source: RIB I p.487

RIB 1532

RIB 1532

RIB 1532: Deae Co/vetine Cr/otus v(o)t(um) l(i)b/e(n)s s[o]lui pro m(ea) sa(lute) (‘For the goddess Coventina, I, Crotus, willingly fiulfilled a vow for my well-being’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.488

RIB 1533

RIB 1533

RIB 1533: Deae sanc(tae) / Covontine / Vincentius / pro salute sua / v(oto) l(aetus) l(ibens) m(erito) d(edicavit) (‘For the holy goddess Covontina, Vincentius, for his own well-being, gladly, willingly, and deservedly dedicated this as a vow’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.488

RIB 1534

RIB 1534

RIB 1534: Deae / Couventinae / T(itus) D(…) Cosconia/nus pr(aefectus) coh(ortis) / I Bat(avorum) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the goddess Coventina, Titus D(…) Cosconianus, prefect of the First Cohort of Batavians freely and deservedly (fulfilled a vow)’). Dedication found 1876 in Coventina’s Well at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.488

RIB 1535

RIB 1535

RIB 1535: Couven[ti(nae)] / Aelius […]/pius p[raef(ectus)] / coh(ortis) I Bat(avorum) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For Coventina, Aelius […]pius, prefect of the First Cohort of Batavians, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.488

RIB 1536

RIB 1536

RIB 1536: Fortunae / coh(ors) I Batavor(um) / cui praeest / M(arcus) Flaccinius / Marcellus prae(fectus) (‘For Fortuna, the First Cohort of Batavians, which is commanded by Marcus Flaccinius Marcellus, prefect (set this up)’). Altar found 1695 at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.489

RIB 1537

RIB 1537

RIB 1537: D(e)ae For(tunae) / Vitalis / fecit / lib(ens) mer(ito) (‘For the goddess Fortuna, Vitalis willingly and deservedly made this’). Altar found 1873 in Room B of the bath-house at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.489

RIB 1538: Genio / hu(i)us lo/ci Texand(ri) / et Suve(vae) / vex(illarii) cohor(tis) / II Nervior/um (‘For the Genius of this place, the Texandri and Suavae, from a detchment of the Second Cohort of Nervians (set this up)’). Altar found near the centre of Carrawburgh in 1874. Source: RIB I pp.489-90

RIB 1539: D(eae) M(atri) D(eum) Tranquil/(i)a Severa / pro se et sui/s v(otum) s(oluit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the goddess Mother of the Gods, Tranquila Severa for her and her own willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found in or before 1716 at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.490

RIB 1540: Matribus / Albinius / Quart(us) mil(es) d(edicavit) (‘For the mother goddesses, Albinius Quartus, a soldier, dedicated this’). Altar found in 1950 reused in the mithraeum. Source: RIB I p.491

RIB 1541: Mat/ribu/s com/mun(ibus) / [… (‘For the universal mother goddesses…’). Altar found 1876 at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.491

RIB 1542: Minervae / Quin[t]us / architect(us) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For Minerva, Quintus, an engineer, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Found 1875 at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.491

RIB 1543

RIB 1543

RIB 1543: Die M/iner/ve Ve/nico pr(o) s(alute) / p(osuit) s(umptu) s(uo) (‘For the goddess Minerva, Venico for his well-being, set this up at his own expense’). Altar found in 1876 in Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.491

RIB 1544

RIB 1544

RIB 1544: Deo Inv(icto) M(ithrae) / L(ucius) Antonius / Proculus / praef(ectus) coh(ortis) I Bat(avorum) Antoninianae / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the Invincible God Mithras, Lucius Antonius Proculus, prefect of the First Cohort of Batavians Antoniniana, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1949 in the mithraeum at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.492

RIB 1545

RIB 1545

RIB 1545: D(eo) In(victo) M(ithrae) s(acrum) / Aul(us) Cluentius / Habitus pra(e)f(ectus) / coh(ortis) I / Batavorum / domu Ulti/n(i)a colon(ia) / Sept(imia) Aur(elia) L(arino) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the invincible scared god Mithras, Aulus Cluentius Habitus, prefect of the First Cohort of Batavians, from the Ultinian voting-tribe, from the colony of Septimia Aurelia Larinum, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1949 in the mithraeum at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I pp.492-3

RIB 1546

RIB 1546

RIB 1546: Deo Invicto / Mitrae M(arcus) Sim/plicius Simplex / pr(a)ef(ectus) v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the invincible god Mitra, Marcus Sinmplicius Simplex, prefect, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1949 in the mithraeum at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.493

RIB 1547: [Nymp]his / [vexi]llatio / [leg(ionis) VI] Vic[tricis] (‘For the nymphs, a detachment of the Sixth Legion Victrix (set this up)’). ?Statue base found before 1873 near Coventina’s Well. Source: RIB I p.494

RIB 1548: Deo Ve/teri vo/tum Uc/cus v(ouit) l(ibens) (‘For the god Veteris, Uccus willingly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found before 1716. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.494

RIB 1549: [Dibu]s / Huite/ribus (‘For the Huiteres gods’). Altar found 1849. Source: RIB I p.494

RIB 1550

RIB 1550

RIB 1550: …]v[er]o leg(ato) / [Aug(usti) pr(o) p]r(aetore) coh(ors) I Aquit/[anorum] fecit / [sub …]io Nepote / [pra]ef(ecto) (‘…] Severus, the Emperor’s propraetorian legate, the First Cohort of Aquitani built this under […]ius Nepos, prefect’). Dedication found 1838 in the NE corner of the fort. Source: RIB I p.495

RIB 1551: …divi Nerv]ae ad[nep(oti) M(arco) Aur(elio)] / [Antonin]o Pio [Fel(ici) Aug(usto) / Parthico] M[a]x(imo) B[rit(annico) Max(imo)… (‘…of the deified Nerva, Marcus Auirelius Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus, Parthicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus…’). Dedication found 1871 at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.495

RIB 1552: …di]vi / [… di]vi Ner(vae) / […]us / [… (‘…of the deified… of the deified Nerva…’). Dedication found 1874 near the middle of the fort. Source: RIB I p.495

RIB 1553

RIB 1553

RIB 1553: [Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) [[C(aio) Iulio Ver]o] / [[Maximino] P(io) F(elici) Aug(usto) Ge]r(manico) max(imo) / [Dac(ico) max(imo) Sarm(atico) max(imo) pont(ifici)] max(imo) / [tr(ibunicia) p(otestate) III imp(eratori) VI co(n)s(uli) p]r(o)co(n)s(uli) / [p(atri) p(atriae) et [[C(aio) Iulio Vero] Maxi]/[[mo] Ger(manico) max(imo) Dac(ico) max(imo) S]arm(atico) / [max(imo) nob(ilissimo)] Caes(ari) n(ostro) sub / […]ucciano v(iro) c(larissimo) leg(ato) / [Aug(usti) pr(o) pr(aetore)] coh(ors) I B[a]tavorum / [fecit cur]ante Burrio / […]sto prae[f(ecto)] / [Perpetuo et C]orneliano [co(n)s(ulibus)] (‘For the Emperoro Caesar Gaius Iulius Verus Maximus Pius Felix Augustus, Germanicus Maximus, Dacicus Maximus, Sarmaticus Maximus, pontifex maximus, with tribunician power for the third time, acclaimed Imperator six times, consul, proconsul, father of his country, and for Gaius Iulius Verus Maximus, Germanicus Maximus, Dacicus Maximus, Sarmaticus Maximus, our most noble Caesar, under […]uccianus, of senatorial rank and Emperor’s propraetorian legate, the First Cohort of Batavi built this under the command of Burrius […], prefect, in the consulship of Perpetuus and Cornelianus’). Dedication found 1838 in the NE corner of the fort. The consular date is AD 237. Source: RIB I pp.495-6

RIB 1554

RIB 1554

RIB 1554: c(enturia) Alexand[ri] (‘The century of Alexander (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 at Carrawburgh Farm. Source: RIB I p.496

RIB 1555: c(enturia) Antoni / Rus(tici) (‘the century of Antonius Rusticus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1874 at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I p.496

RIB 1556: c(enturia) Thrupo/niana / p(edes) XXIIII (‘the former century of Thrupo (built) 24 feet’). Centurial stone found in the southern interval tower on the west side of Carrawburgh in 1871. Source: RIB I p.496

RIB 1557: c(enturia) […] (‘century of […] (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1732 at Carrawburgh Farm. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.496

RIB 1558: …]paudi Re[g]ulo vixit / [anni]s XXXIIII et [..]atencte / [con]iugi pi(a)e vix(it) an(n)is XXX [et] / […]ian(a)e fili(ae) eorum vixit d(iebus) / […] filio eorum / […]udivaiti fil(io) / […]PAHICE / [ (‘… for… Regulus, lived 34 years and for … devoted wife… lived 30 years and for … their daughter, lived … days, and for … their son and for… son…’). Tombstone found 1876 at Carrawburgh. Source: RIB I pp.496-7

RIB 1559

RIB 1559

RIB 1559: D(is) M(anibus) [s(acrum)] / Longi[ni …] / buc(inatoris) c[oh(ortis) I Bat(avorum)] / [… (‘For the immortal shades, Longinus … trumpeter of the First Cohort of Batavi’). Tombstone found in the bath-house in 1873. Source: RIB I p.497

RIB 1560

RIB 1560

RIB 1560: [D(is)] M(anibus) / […]s Mileni (filius) / [signi]fero / cohor(tis) I Bat/[avorum] (‘For the immortal shades, …s son of Milenus, standard-bearer of the First Cohort of Batavi’). Tombstone found 1873 in the bath-house. Source: RIB I p.497

RIB 1561

RIB 1561

RIB 1561: D(is) M(anibus) / Ael(iae) Comindo / annorum XXXII / Nobilianus dec(urio) / coniugi car[i]ss[i]m(ae) p(osuit) (‘For the immortal shades and Aelia Comindus, Nobilianus, decurion, set this up for a most dear wife’). Tombstone found 1873 in the bath-house. Source: RIB I pp.497-8

RIB 1562

RIB 1562

RIB 1562: …coh(ortis)] I Bat(avorum) / [… et] Hilario / heredes f(aciendum) c(uraverunt) (‘…First Cohort of Batavians, […] and Hilario, heirs, had this set up’). Tombstone found 1873 in the bath-house. Source: RIB I p.498

RIB 1563: …] Ulp[…] / […]Sabin[… (‘?’). Tombstone? fragment found 1735 at Simonburn. Source: RIB I p.498

RIB 3316

RIB 3316

RIB 3316: Nymphis et Genio / Loci M(arcus) Hispanius / Modestinus praef(ectus) / coh(ortis) I Bat(avorum) pro se / et suis l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the nymphs and the spirit of the place, Marcus Hispanius Modestinus prefect of the First Cohort of Batavians, for himself and his family, willingly deservedly (fulfilled a vow)’). Altar inscribed almost identically on two faces found 1957 in an open-air shrine. Now in the GNM. Source: RIB III pp.308-9

RIB 3317: […Had]ri[ano Aug(usto) …] co(n)s(uli) […] / […co]h(ors) I Tun[grorum …] / […fec]it (‘For …Hadrian Augustus… consul… the First Cohort of Tungri made this’). Dedication found 1965 in a field wall. Source: RIB III pp.310-11

RIB 3318: …]AE[… / …]X[… (‘?’). ?Tombstone found 1964 when making the car park. Source: RIB III p.311

Analysis

There is an overwhelming spiritual theme to the inscriptions from Carrawburgh.

The altars from Coventina’s Well dominate this assemblage and it is noteworthy that it is the commanders and men of the First Cohort of Batavi who are dedicating them and that these included ethnic Germans. Although she appears to be a local water nymph, a case has been made for a Germanic origin and other dedications are known from western Europe. Although it is thought the altars surrounded the well in the shrine, they were actually found dumped into it; some have seen this as ritual deposition, others as concealment or desecration.

The mithraic inscriptions, on the other hand, reflect the elite nature of that cult, with commanders of the unit dedicating the three main altars from the mithraeum.

A range of tombstones have come from the site, including part of a Totenmahl stone, showing the deceased reclining at their final (eternal) meal. This features a rather fine depiction of a three-legged table.

Advertisements