PLV Inscriptions (Carvoran to Birdoswald)

Introduction

This section includes civilian levy building stones which probably date to the Severan reconstruction of the Wall. Most of the material comes from consolidation of the curtain wall, so there is a large number of centurial stones, almost exclusively from the Twentieth Legion.

Inventory

RIB 1843: civitas / Dumn(on)i(orum) (‘the tribe of the Dumnonii (built this)’). Building stone found before 1761 near Carvoran. Source: RIB I p.570 http://mcbishop.co.uk/perlineamvalli/inscriptions/1843.jpg

RIB 1844: civitas / Dumnoni(orum) (‘the tribe of the Dumnonii (built this)’). Building stone found before 1828 near E of Thirlwell Castle, now in Holmhead farmhouse. Source: RIB I p.571 http://mcbishop.co.uk/perlineamvalli/inscriptions/1844.jpg

RIB 1845: coh(ortis) […] / Magni[… (‘(…,) Cohort (…the century of…) Magn(…) (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 near Thirlwell. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1846: c(enturia) Mun(ati) / Maxsu(mi) (‘the century of Munatius Maximus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 near Thirlwell Castle. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1847: c(enturia) Aeliani (‘the century of Aelianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1794 at Netherby but thought to come from this area. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1848: co[h]ors II / […]m / […] (‘Second Cohort, the century of (…)m(…) (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1698 at Glenwhelt. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1849: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) Libon[i]s (‘First Cohort, the century of Libo (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 at Greenfoot. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.571

RIB 1850: …] / DVV[…] / STERV[…] / BERTO[… (‘?’). Fragment found before 1732 at Wall End farm house. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1851: coh(ortis) II / c(enturia) Laetia[ni] (‘Second Cohort, the century of Laetianus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1884 at New Hall. Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1852: [Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) divi Traiani] / [fil(io) divi] Nervae ne[p(oti)] / [Trai]ano Hadria[no] / Aug(usto) / leg(io) XX V(aleria) v(ictrix) (‘For the Emperor Caesar, son of the divine Trajan, grandson of the divine Nerva, Trajan Hadrian Augustus, the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix (built this)’). Dedication found before 1850 in a stable at Chapel House. Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1853: c(enturia) Valeri / Veri (‘the century of Valerius Verus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 near Foultown (now Green Croft). Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1854: coh(ortis) VI / c(enturia) Caledo/ni Secund(i) (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Caledonius Secundus (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1884 between Chapel House and Gap. Source: RIB I p.572

RIB 1855: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Cl(audi) Augu[s(tani)] (‘ Third Cohort, the century of Claudius Augustanus (built this)’). Centurial inscription found before 1876 in the stable at Gap farm. Source: RIB I pp.572-3

RIB 1856: coh(ortis) I / c(enturia) Opsili (‘First Cohort, the century of Opsilius (built this)’). Centurial stone found in 1883 in Wall debris at Gilsland Vicarage. Source: RIB I p.573

RIB 1857: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) Libonis (‘First Cohort, the century of Libo (built this)’). Centurial stone found in 1896 in the brook E of Gilsland Vicarage. Source: RIB I p.573

RIB 1858: c(enturia) Vesui / Rufi (‘the century of Vesuius Rufus’). Centurial stone found 1903 near Gilsland railway station. Source: RIB I p.573

RIB 1859: coh(ortis) VI / c(enturia) Lousi / Suavis (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Lousius Suavis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1951 65yds E of Turret 48a. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1860: c(enturia) Coccei / Reguli (‘the century of Cocceius Regulus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1951 32ft E of Turret 48a. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1861: coh(ortis) VI / |(centuria) Lousi Su/avis (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Lousius Suavis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1927 260yds W of Turret 48a. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1862: c(enturia) Coccei / Reguli (‘the century of Cocceius Rugulus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1884 in a garden wall at Willowford Farm. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1863: E (‘?’). Large stone found before 1732 in Willowford farmhouse. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.574

RIB 1864: c(enturia) I[…] (‘The century of I(…) (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 in Willowford farmhouse. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1865: c(enturia) I[…] (‘The century of I(…) (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 in Willowford farmhouse. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1866: ? (‘?’). Large stone found before 1732 in Willowford farmhouse. Now lost (inscription on its hidden face?!). Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1867: c(enturia) Ferron[i] / Vegeti / coh(ortis) III (‘the century of Ferronius Vegetus of the Third Cohort (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1940 16yds E of secondary tower at Willowford bridge abutment. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1868: c(enturia) Probi/ana (‘the former century of Probus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1939 between Harrow’s Scar and Milecastle 49. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1869: c(enturia) Cassi / Pris/ci / coh(ortis) VI (‘the century of Cassius Priscus of the Sixth Cohort (built this)’). Centurial stone found before 1732 half a mile E of Birdoswald. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1870: [Deo sanc/to Si]l[v]an[o] / [F]lavius / Marcel/linus dec(urio) / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the holy god Silvanus, Flavius Marcellinus, decurion, willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Altar found 1953 in Milecastle 49. Source: RIB I p.575

RIB 1871: [Dis] M(anibus) A / […]erenus / [vix(it) an]n(os) II me(nses) II d(ies) III (‘For the immortal shades, …lived 2 years, 2 months, 3 days’). Tombstone found 1953 in the threshold of the S gate of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB I p.576

RIB 3401: coh(ortis) VI c(enturia Lo/usi Suav/is (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Lousius Suavis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1980 at ‘Thirlwall View’, Greenhead. Source: RIB III p.369

RIB 3402: c(enturia) Coccei Reguli (‘the century of Cocceius Regulus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1974 in the former Globe Inn (‘Glenwhelt Coachouse’) at Greenhead. Source: RIB III p.370

RIB 3403: c(enturia) Iul(i) Ianal(is) (‘the century of Iulius Ianalis’). Centurial stone found 1976 at Holmhead guesthouse. Source: RIB III p.371

RIB 3404: c(o)ho(rtis) / III (‘Third Cohort’). Building stone found 1962 227m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.371

RIB 3405: co[h(ortis) V / [c(enturia) M]axi(mi) (‘Fifth Cohort, the century of Maximus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1966 227m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.372

RIB 3406: c(enturia) Reguli (‘the century of Regulus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1962 222m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.372

RIB 3407: c(o)ho(rtis) V / c(enturia) G(elli) P(h)ilippi (‘Fifth Cohort, the century of Gellius Philippus (built this)’). Centurial stone found in ploughing in 1986 150m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.373

RIB 3408: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) / Sereni (‘the century of primus pilus Serenus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1961 96m E of Turret 48b. Source: RIB III p.373

RIB 3409: c(enturia) Iuli Valeni (‘the century of Iulius Valerius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1966, probably somewhere between Turrets 48a and b (with ‘N’ thought to be an error for ‘R’). Source: RIB III p.374

RIB 3410: X (’10’). Building stone found 1987 in situ 150m E of turret at Willowford bridge abutment on S face. Source: RIB III p.374

RIB 3411: coh(ortis) II / c(enturia) Obc(…) Libo(nis) (‘Second Cohort, the century of Olc(…) Libo (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1963 121.7m E of Willowford Bridge turret. Source: RIB III p.375

RIB 3412: coh(ortis) I / c(enturia) Val(eri) Sabini (‘First Cohort, the century of Valerius Sabinus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1963 102.5m E of Willowford Bridge turret. Source: RIB III p.376

RIB 3413: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Socelli (‘Third Cohort, the century of Socellius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1963 59.5m E of turret at Willowford bridge abutment. Source: RIB III p.376

RIB 3414: Petta / c(enturia) Dida (‘Petta, the century of Dida’). Building stone found 1962 41.2m E of turret at Willowford bridge abutment. Source: RIB III p.377

RIB 3415: coh(ortis) VII / c(enturia) …ANIAN (‘Seventh Cohort, the century of ? (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1959 W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.378

RIB 3416: c(enturia) Pompei / Aemiliani p(edes) XXX (‘the century of Pompeius Aemilianus (built) 30 feet’). Centurial stone found 1958 W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.379

RIB 3417: c(enturia) Marci / Rufi (‘the century of Marcius Rufus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1958 W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.379

RIB 3418: c(enturia) Marc[i] / Rufi (‘the century of Marcius Rufus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1959 62.8m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.380

RIB 3419: c(enturia) Cari / Scipio(nis) (‘the century of Carius Scipio (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1959 67.7m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.380

RIB 3420: X (’10’). Building stone found 1959 123.5m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.381

RIB 3421: X (’10’). Building stone found on N face 1959 146.5m W of Milecastle 49 N gate. Source: RIB III p.381

RIB 3422: coh(ortis) VII / c(enturia) Atili Natalis Bas(s)i (‘Seventh Cohort, the century of Atilius Natalis (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1958 157m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.381

RIB 3423: c(enturia) Ulp(i) Paulli (‘the century of Ulpius Paullus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 somewhere E of RIB 3424. Source: RIB III p.382

RIB 3424: coh(ortis) VIII / c(enturia) Fla(vi) Bas(s)i (‘Eighth Cohort, the century of Flavius Bassus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 217.5m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.382

RIB 3425: coh(ortis) VIII / c(enturia) Iuli Primi (‘Eighth Cohort, the century of Iulius Primus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 185.1m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.383

RIB 3426: c(enturia) Secund]i]ni / Verulli p(edes) XXX (‘the century of Secundinius Verullus (built) 30 feet’). Centurial stone found 1957 176.8m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.384

RIB 3427: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) (‘the century of the primus pilus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 154.9m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.384

RIB 3428: X (’10’). Building stone found 1987 293.5m W of N gate of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.385

RIB 3429: VII s(emis) (‘7½ (feet)’). Building stone found 1957 144.3m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.385

RIB 3430: coho(rtis) VI / c(enturia) Eppi Const(antis) (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Eppius Constans (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1957 135.4m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.386

RIB 3431: * (‘?’). Building stone found 1987 310m W of N gate of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.386

RIB 3432: X (’10’). Building stone found 1956 328m W of N gate of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.387

RIB 3433: c(o)ho(rtis) VI / c(enturia) F(a)eni / Alex(andri) (‘Sixth Cohort, the century of Faenius Alexander (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1956 110.1m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.387

RIB 3434: c(enturia) Terti (‘the century of Tertius (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1956 80.2m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.388

RIB 3435: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) (‘the century of the primus pilus (built this)’). Centurial stone found 1956 76.25m E of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.388

RIB 3436: X (’10’). Building stone found 1987 374.5m W of Milecastle 49. Source: RIB III p.389

RIB 3437: coh(ors) III (‘Third Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found 1956 26.8m E of NE corner of Birdoswald fort. Source: RIB III p.389

Analysis

This sector contains more than a mile of consolidated curtain wall, most of it done soon after the Second World War under the Ministry of Works charge hand Charlie Anderson. Although largely undertaken without archaeological supervision, records were nevertheless kept and the locations of inscriptions noted with some degree of accuracy. This proves useful for identifying the stints of individual centuries and cohorts, as has been covered in an earlier blog entry. The centurial inscriptions east of the River Irthing (18459, 185462, 18645, 186769, 34019, 341114) are thought to have belonged to the Twentieth Legion, as the Chapel House milecastle inscription (1852) seems to confirm. Replacement of the Turf Wall in stone west of the river is thought to have begun immediately the rampart was completed and before the Wall was abandoned for the move up to the Antonine Wall. The civilian levy stones (1843–4) are believed to belong to the Severan refurbishment of the Wall, the initial construction of the Wall under Hadrian being exclusively military.

An altar to Silvanus from Milecastle 49 (1870) once again probably reflects the army’s interest in hunting, but the tombstone of a child from the same place (1871) may come from one of the Birdoswald cemeteries, rather than from the milecastle itself.

About these ads