PLV Inscriptions (Housesteads to Great Chesters)

Introduction

Most of the inscriptions in this section are centurial building stones but it includes four key building inscriptions from Milecastles 37, 38, and 42.

Inventory

RIB 1632: c(enturia) Iuli / Candid(i) / f(ecit) (‘the century of Iulius Candidus built this’). Found before 1923 a little W of Housesteads. Source: RIB I p.518

RIB 1633

RIB 1633

RIB 1633: Deo / Cocidio / Vabrius / [v(otum)] s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the god Cocidius, Vabrius willingly and deservedly fulfilled a vow’). Found in 1851 at the foot of the crags at Milecastle 37. Source: RIB I pp.518-19

RIB 1634

RIB 1634

RIB 1634: …] / leg(io) II [Aug(usta)] / A(ulo) Platorio N[epote] (‘… Second Legion Augusta under Aulus Platorius Nepos’). Dedication found 1851 in Milecastle 37 secondary floor. Source: RIB I p.519

RIB 1635

RIB 1635

RIB 1635: L(egio) VI / V(ictrix) P(ia) F(idelis) f(ecit) (‘Sixth Legion Victrix Pia Fidelis built this’). Building stone found 1840 at the foot of the crags at Milecastle 37. Source: RIB I p.519

RIB 1636: […] / […]ir fecit (‘… built this’). Dedication found 1911 in a field wall near Bradley. Source: RIB I p.519

RIB 1637

RIB 1637

RIB 1637: Imp(eratoris) Ga[e]s(aris) Traian(i) / Hadrian(i) Aug(usti) / leg(io) I[I] Aug(usta) / A(ulo) Platorio [N]epote leg(ato) pr(o) p[r(aetore)] (‘(The work) of the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, Second Legion Augusta (built this) under Aulus Platorius Nepos, propraetorian legate’). Dedication found in two parts in 1725 and in 1829 at Bradley. Source: RIB I pp.519-20

RIB 1638

RIB 1638

RIB 1638: Imp(eratoris) Caes(aris) Traian(i) / Hadriani Aug(usti) / leg(io) II Aug(usta) / A(ulo) Platorio Nepote leg(ato) pr(o) pr(aetore) (‘(The work) of the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, Second Legion Augusta (built this) under Aulus Platorius Nepos, propraetorian legate’). Dedication found before 1757, probably at Milecastle 38. Source: RIB I p.520

RIB 1639: …]us[…] / [… vi]xit annis / […] mensibus du/[obus di]ebus quinque (‘…lived …years, two months, five days’). Tombstone fragment found 1935 reused in Milecastle 38. Source: RIB I p.520

RIB 1640: Civilis[.] (‘Civilis…’). Building stone found before 1830 at Peel. Source: RIB I p.520

RIB 1641: (swastika) D(is) [M(anibus) / [… (‘For the immortal shades…’). Tombstone fragment found before 1878 40yds E of Turret 39a. Source: RIB I p.521

RIB 1642: […]H[…] / […]PA[…] / […]RAC[…] / […]N[… (‘?’). Tombstone fragment found before 1873 somewhere between Turrets 37a and 41a. Source: RIB I p.521

RIB 1643: c(enturia) p(rimi) p(ili) (‘century of the primus pilus (built this)’). Building stone found 1929 130yds W of Turret 40a, 4th course on S face. Source: RIB I p.521

RIB 1644: coh(ors) VII (‘Seventh Cohort (built this)’). Building stone found 1877 E of Turret 40b. Now lost. Source: RIB I p.521

RIB 1645

RIB 1645

RIB 1645: leg(io) XX / V(aleria) V(ictrix) (‘Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix (built this)’). Building stone found around 1847 E of Turret 41b and W of Thorny Doors. Source: RIB I p.522

RIB 1646: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) Iu/li Candid(i) (‘Cohort I, century of Iulius Candidus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.522

RIB 1647: coh(ortis) I c(enturia) Olc(…) Libon[is] (‘Cohort I, the century of Olc(…) Libo (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.522

RIB 1648: coh(ortis) IIII c(enturia) Cla(udi) / Cleonici (‘Fourth Cohort, century of Claudius Cleonicus’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.522

RIB 1649: coh(ortis) VII / c(enturia) Pomp[e]i (‘Seventh Cohort, century of Pompeius (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.522

RIB 1650: coh(ortis) VIII / c(enturia) Mar[(…)] (‘Eighth Cohort, century of Mar(…) (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.523

RIB 1651: coh(ortis) VIII / c(enturia) Postum[i] (‘Eighth Cohort, century of Postumus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.523

RIB 1652: [c(enturia)] Coccei / [R]eguli (‘century of Cocceius Regulus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.523

RIB 1653: c(enturia) Candia/na (pedes) XXII (‘former century of Candius (built) 22 (feet)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.523

RIB 1654: c(enturia) Flori (‘the century of Florus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.523

RIB 1655: c(enturia) Kalpur/niani (‘the century of Kalpurnianus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.524

RIB 1656: c(enturia) Marit[…] (‘the century of Marit[…] (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.524

RIB 1657: c(enturia) Caecili / Moni(mi) (‘the century of Caecilius Monimus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1848 near Milecastle 42. Source: RIB I p.524

RIB 1658: c(enturia) Iulli /Val(…) (‘the century of Iulius Val(…) (built this)’). Building stone found before 1848 near Milecastle 42. Source: RIB I p.524

RIB 1659: c(enturia) Rufi Sabi/ni (‘the century of Rufius Sabinus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1848 near Milecastle 42. Source: RIB I p.524

RIB 1660: c(enturia) Secu[… (‘the century of Secu[…] (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.524

RIB 1661: c(enturia) Veri (‘the century of Verus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.525

RIB 1662: c(enturia) Veri (‘the century of Verus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.525

RIB 1663: c(enturia) Venuli (‘the century of Venulus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1873 between Housesteads and Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.525

RIB 1664: coh(ortis) IX / c(enturia) Flavi / Norici (‘Ninth Cohort, the century of Flavius Noricus (built this)’). Building stone found 1929 at East Cawfields farmhouse. Source: RIB I p.525

RIB 1665

RIB 1665

RIB 1665: Deo Apol/l(i)n(i) Melonius / Senilis expl(orator) / Ger(mania) sup(eriore) / (votum) s(usceptum) s(olvit) / l(aetus) l(ibens) m(erito) (‘For the god Apollo, Melonius Senilis, duplicarius from Upper Germany, gladly, willingly, and deservedly fulfilled a vow he undertook’). Altar found around 1848 in a spring near Milecastle 42. Source: RIB I p.525

RIB 1666

RIB 1666

RIB 1666: Im[p(eratori) Caes(ari) Traian(o)] / H[adriano Aug(usto)] / le[g(io) II Aug(usta)] / A(ulo) Pla[torio Nepote leg(ato) pr(o) pr(aetore)] (‘For the Emperoro Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, Second Legion Augusta under Aulus Platorius Nepos, propraetorian legate (built this)’). Dedication found 1847 in Milecastle 42. Source: RIB I p.525

RIB 1667

RIB 1667

RIB 1667: D(is) M(anibus) [s(acrum)] / Dagvalda m[i]l(es) [coh(ortis) I] / Pan(noniorum) vixit an(nos) […] / Pusinna [con]/[iu]x titulu[m pos(uit)] (‘Sacred for the immortal shades, Dagvalda, soldier of the First Cohort of Pannonians, lived […] years, his wife Pusinna set up this inscription’). Tombstone fragment found 1847 in Milecastle 42. Source: RIB I p.526

RIB 1668: c(enturia) Gelli Philip/pi (‘century of Gellius Philippus (built this)’). Building stone found 1905 near Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.526

RIB 1669: c(enturia) Maxi(mi) (‘century of Maximus (built this)’). Building stone found 1905 near Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.526

RIB 1670: c(enturia) Romu/lei / Iusti (‘century of Romuleius Iustus (built this)’). Building stone found 1905 near Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.526

RIB 1671: c(enturia) Victori/ni (‘century of Victorinus (built this)’). Building stone found at foot of crags near Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.527

RIB 1672: C(ivitas) Dur(o)tr(i)g(um) / [L]endin(i)e(n)sis (‘the state of the Durotriges, from Ilchester’). Building stone found 1882 at the foot of the crags near Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.527

RIB 1673: Ci(vitas) Duro/trag(um) Lendi/nie(n)si[s] (‘the state of the Durotriges, from Ilchester’). Building stone found before 1873 W of Housesteads. Source: RIB I p.527

RIB 1674: coh(ortis) I / c(enturia) Iuli / Candidi (‘First Cohort, the century of Iulius Candidus (built this)’). Building stone found around 1943 E of Turret 42a. Source: RIB I p.527

RIB 1675: coh(ortis) III / c(enturia) Socell/iana (‘Third Cohort, the former century of Socellius (built this)’). Building stone found 1900 near Cawfields. Source: RIB I p.528

RIB 1676: coh(ortis) V | c(enturia) / Ostoria/ni (‘Fifth Cohort, the century of Ostorianus (built this)’). Building stone found in a sheep pen near Cawfields Quarry in 1937. Source: RIB I p.528

RIB 1677: c(enturia) Iuli / Florentini (‘the century of Iulius Florentinus (built this)’). Building stone found in blasting at Cawfields Quarry in 1937. Source: RIB I p.528

RIB 1678: c(o)ho(rtis) VI / c(enturia) Libera[lis] (‘Sixth Cohort, century of Liberalis (built this)’). Building stone found in 1937 in Cawfields Quarry. Source: RIB I p.528

RIB 1679: coh(ortis) VI / c(enturia) Caledon(i) / Secun(di) (‘Sixth Cohort, century of Caledonius Secundus (built this)’). Building stone found in 1937 in Cawfields Quarry. Source: RIB I pp.528-9

RIB 1680: leg(io) VI V(ictrix) (‘Sixth Legion Victrix (built this)’). Quarry inscription found 1844 immediately W of Haltwhistleburn fortlet. Source: RIB I p.529

RIB 1681: c(enturia) Lousi / Suavis (‘century of Lousius Suavis (built this)’). Building stone found 1861 built into a Haltwhistle Burn Head house outbuilding. Source: RIB I p.529

RIB 1682: c(enturia) Val(eri) / Maxi(mi) (‘century of Valerius Maximus (built this)’). Building stone found before 1732 at Haltwhistle Burn Head. Source: RIB I p.529

RIB 3374: * (‘?’). Building stone with quarry mark found 1993 125m W of Turret 39a. Source: RIB III p.351

RIB 3375: Cassius (‘Cassius’). Building stone found in 1960 at Cat Stairs, moved to Twice Brewed, subsequently used in the foundations of the ladies’ lavatory there. Now lost. Source: RIB III p.351

RIB 3376: [c(ivitas) Durot/rac(um) / [Lendine](n)sis (‘The civitas of the Durotraces of Lendin(…) (built this)’). Building slab found in 1958 in a medieval kiln on the Vallum north mound at Cawfields. Source: RIB III p.352

Analysis

Four iconic inscriptions confirm the construction of Milecastles 37 (1634), 38 (1636–7), and 42 (1666) under Hadrian, mentioning the governor Aulus Platorius Nepos by name. The last two in particular were instrumental in untangling the old notion that the stone wall was built by Severus and the Vallum by Hadrian. However, the presence of a further building inscription of the Sixth Legion at Milecastle 37 (1635), suggests reconstruction work by the Sixth at some point (perhaps under Severus?). This may also have been the occasion when civilian levies were employed on building work (1672–3 and 3376).

Milecastle 37 also produced an altar to Cocidius (1633), presumably indicating that one of the pastimes of the garrison was hunting and Milecastle 42 part of a tombstone (1667).

The bulk of the rest of the inscriptions are centurial stones, their number probably reflecting the work undertaken by Clayton’s men in excavating and reconstructing the curtain wall in this section, along with subsequent modern repair and consolidation, by comparison with other areas to the east and west.

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